1.0 a practise which invites politically and socially values

1.0 INTRODUCTION

 

 The advocacy is the struggle to defend
communities from destruction by urban renewal schemes. The theory of advocacy planning comes
not only from Paul Davidoff’s mind but from the multiple practices by community
activists and professionals to redress issues of racial and class oppression.
Planners should see themselves
as advocates for the poor and for distressed communities.

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Advocacy
planning is a pluralistic and inclusive planning theory where planners seek to
represent the interests of various groups within society. Advocacy planning was
a necessary method for representing the low-income and minority groups who were
not always on equal footing with the rich and powerful. By advocacy planning, it would serve
to better inform the public of the alternative choice open to them. If the
public are not satisfy with the planning that have been set up, they have the
alternative way to counter it by their own. Advocacy is the argument for a change in policies and
practices on specific issues. The prospect of advocacy planning is that a
practise which invites politically and socially values to be examined and
debated. Based on Davidoff’s ideas, we’ll see how they have profound
implications for planning practice today and far-reaching implications for the
future..

The advocacy is as the process of
resolving on conflict or a problem in a democratic manner.  Other than that advocacy shows the proper way
in supporting the individuals, groups, organisation whose are concerned with
the proposing policies for the future development for community. Planners
should be able to engage in this political process as advocates the interest
for both groups in democratic way. Davidoff considers out dated and ineffective
aspects of planning which are unitary planning, the traditional planning
commission, and emphasizing on physical aspects of urban areas.

According
to Davidoff, there are interests and communities of interests out there that
must be considered in the planning process. Planners
should see themselves as advocates for the poor and for distressed communities. There are interests and
communities of interests out there that must be considered in the planning
process. The planning process should include rather than exclude the citizen
from participating in the process if it is to encourage democratic urban
government.

For example, in the
preparation of the Terengganu Structure Plan, researchers have taken several
alternatives to measure the level of needs and demands of the community by
using Public Participation or namely as Public Engagement method. This method
is will involve the community to give opinions and suggestions for future
development. For example, in the preparation of the Terengganu Structure Plan,
researchers have taken several alternatives to measure the level of needs and
demands of the community by using Public Participation or namely as Public
Engagement method. This method is will involve the community to give opinions
and suggestions for future development. The involvement of lay citizens in the
formulation of policies and strategies which affect the development of urban
areas. This is to ensure that development plans are in congruence with the
wishes of the people.

Generally, concept of
Advocacy and Pluralism based on Davidoff are related to the social planning which
same method as Planners in Planning Process for example in preparation of
Structure Plan. Davidoff called for citizen participation in the planning
process and the need to rediscover an enlightened democracy.  It can be conclude that this concept are
related to the planning and it also concentrate about the social values which
is community need and demands. Davidoff’s
arguments and alternative decision making process which is Unitary Plan and
Plural Plan

Plural Planning

Unitary Planning

Exploring and
discussing multiple options for each proposed plan, hearing from different
interest groups, giving all groups a voice whether they have had traditional
„power? within a community or not.

A practice that has discourages full
participation by citizens in plan making in the past. It showed that only one
agency of a city or department in a community should prepare a comprehensive
plan
 

 

 In presenting the
better plural planning, the appropriate future courses of action for the
community must be decided without putting the importance of the obligation of
the public planning agency aside. Plural Planning also the best practice in
preparing Structure Plan which contributed conductive opinion as input in the
planning of the city through public participation in the preparation stage of
engagement in the process of the development plan.

2.0 A PLANNER AS
ADVOCATE

Davidoff argues that the correct role
of the planner is one of an advocate and it should against traditional
planning. The concept of advocacy is taken from legal practice implies the
opposition of at least two contending viewpoints in an adversary proceeding.
The advocate planner would consider his own and his client’s view of the good
society. The advocate planner would be more than a provider of information, an
analyst of current trends, a simulator of future conditions and a detailer of
means.

Next, the advocate planner would be
responsible to his client and would seek to express his client’s views.
Persuasion might not be necessary as the planner would have employer with whom
he shared his common views about desired social conditions have the opportunity
to get an employment with agencies holding value close to them.

Whether working in public or private
agency, advocate planner should prepare plans that take account of arguments
made by other plans. The advocate planner would be above all planner,
responsible to his or her clients for preparing plans and for all of the other
elements comprising the planning process. Thus, advocate planner should have a
legal brief and a document presenting the fact and supporting one set of
proposals as well as reasons to counter the proposals.

The advocate would have the job of
informing the other groups, including public agencies, of the conditions,
problems, and outlook of the groups they represented. Other than the advocate
planner should stressed of helping the client organisation to clarify its idea
and give expression to them. In order to make clients politically influenced,
the advocates should engage in expanding the scope of their client organisation.

Lastly, advocacy and pluralism are
means for stimulating consideration for future conditions by all groups in
society. They should concerning and focused on the needed groups which is
low-income group as they particularly in need of the assistance of planners to
combat poverty and would propose programs affording new and better
opportunities to the members of the organisation and to families similarly
situated.

3.0 THE STRUCTURE OF
PLANNING

According to the Davidoff, the local
planning process typically includes one or more “citizen”
organizations concerned with the nature of planning in the community. The
private group will be preparing a recommendation for community development
which include the survey and analysis is depend upon the quality of work prepared
by the public agency or public information. As an example in the State
Structure Plan provider that involves the forming of goals, policies and
proposals on the socio-economic development and the state environment as well
as highlighting planning and decision issues to the State Planning Committee
(NRD) and the public.

The program such as workable program
which can encourage citizen participation has enforced the tradition and
brought it to most large communities. Organisation might be engaged through
plural planning process by political parties is strong. The local political
organisation has lack of interest, ability, or concern to establish
well-developed programs for their communities. Ideal situation would be if
parties in the legislative and executive branches would form their own plans,
these plans would be discussed and appraised, and the planning agency would
carry out its activities based on constituent demands. However, Davidoff admits
this is a lofty ideal that would be difficult to realize.

The second set of organisation that
might be interested in preparing plans for community development are those that
represent special interest groups having established views in regard to proper
public policy. For example, for the preparation of the structure plan, there
will be some organizations involved in coordinating the preparation of
development plans at the state level where it is a written statement
documenting the policies and recommendations on the development and use of land
in the state as the provisions of Section 8 of the Town and Country Planning
Act (Act 172). Based on Davidoff, these organizations are often played
parts in the development of community plans but only few instances have they
proposed their own plans. There is a strong reason operating against commitment
to a plan by this organization and it is interest of politicians and the
potential for planning in our society. The commitment to a particular plan may
make it difficult to find means for accommodating their various interests.

Other than that, there are three sets
of organizations that may be seen as supporters of the plan and who the
previous comments may be unavailable are known as ad hoc protest associations
that may be formed contrary to some of the proposed policies. For example, a
group is a neighbourhood association formed to combat renewal plans, zoning
changes, or proposed public facilities and utilities location. It can be
conclude that, in preparation of Structure Plan it must to take consideration
about the impact on the social , economy and physical.

The solution of this problem is by
Public Participation which to ensure that development plans are in congruence
with the wishes of the people and the involvement of lay citizens in the
formulation of policies and strategies which affect the development of urban
areas.In Malaysia, under the provisions of TCPA
1976, public participation is mandatory during the formulation stage of
a development plan and after a draft is approved. Public Participation is allows
each citizen the right to influence governmental decision making it can help
maintain the stability of society and guards the public interest. For example
public participation method can be used is Public Engagement.

3.1 The public Planning Agency

Three
groups should be involved with a democratic, public planning process which

 

 

 

 

6.0 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION

This
chapter will discussing about the practice of public participation in  the State of Terengganu. The researcher is
focused on the Terengganu State. Public participation is compulsory in the
process of preparing Draft of Structure Plan in Terengganu in 2017-2035. The research
was carried out at three place in process of public participation using public
engagement method which at Kuala Terengganu (Pasar Payang and Pantai Batu Buruk
), and Dungun (Lembaga Kemajuan Terengganu Tengah (KETENGAH).

 

In
Malaysia, public participation is not just an alternative for better planning,
but is a requirement as stated in the planning law. Town and Country Planning
Act 1976 (Act 172) and the amendments require public participation in the process
of preparing development plans (structure plans and local plans) in Peninsular
Malaysia. Public has the right to know and participate in making decisions,
particularly in those which potentially affect the communities in which they
live and work. (Dasimah Bt Omar and Oliver Ling Hoon Leh). It also same as concept Advocacy
Planning which Davidoff called for citizen participation in the
planning process and the need to rediscover an enlightened democracy and there are interests and communities of
interests out there that must be considered in the planning process. The
planning process should include rather than exclude the citizen from
participating in the process if it is to encourage democratic urban government.
According to Davidoff, planning was to be done in the public interest

 

 

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