1.0 INTRODUCTIONLocal government is a component of country’s government which concerns with people’s matter in a certain locality. Local governance involve different objectives such as good living, working , environment protection, self governing societies, also provides local services according to the need of its people as well as protecting life and freedom of its citizens. Citizens’ participation on issues, policies and decision that affect their life, overall sustainable development which will ensure quality life of its people is another objective of local governance. Village government is a unit of local government in Tanzania it exists under section 14 of local government Act No.8 and 7 of 1982 respectively. Village government is registered according to sec no.22 of law no.7 of local government .There should be not less than 250 families, and 1250 citizens for the village to qualify to be registered. Village is registered by village registry who is elected by the Minister responsible for local government. Before registering important requirements must be submitted to the registry such as village boundaries, number of families in the village which shall not be under 250, number of people who can work, work and main activities of the village, village land size, assets and essential services in the village, when the registry is satisfied with provided information, they register the village.Village government has two organ village assembly and council. According to the Act every village government must have village assembly and village council. Village council contains 15 and 25 member, who includes chairperson who is elected after every five years, chairpersons of all vitongoji in the said area, and other members selected by village assembly. Village council is concerned with welfare and wellbeing of the citizens as well as social and economic development of the village. Village assembly deals with all matters of policy making related to affairs of the village and also selection and removal of village council. The village government is the smallest local government unit in Tanzania. 2.0 DISCUSSION 2.1.1 Theories of Local Government• Democratic Participation Theory.This theory has been larger part contributed by John Stuart Mills through his work on utilitarianism, freedom and delegate government. He clarified that great government is representative government, since it energizes autonomy, value and solidarity, and influences men to understand the significance requests of other men, promote political training, cooperation and correspondence. He additionally clarifies local government is a key part of majority rule government (democratic), and uncovers intrinsic value of democracy paying little mind to the services it provides. Government is great when all individuals can participate. Local government gives closest thing to far reaching counsel and cooperation. Local government in most western countries such as Britain and USA, function to create democracy and deliver opportunities for political participation to citizen as well as instruct and socialize them politically. Panter (1953) explain participation is essential for democracy because it is the community that people appreciate and acknowledge others views and learn art of practical politics. Theory assumes that local government is a training ground for higher level politics. Theory assumes participation is key to democracy. When all citizens participate in public affairs it promotes accountability and transparency. It promotes on the need of citizens to have freedom. The theory can be relevance on local government on the part of participation, because on village government participation is also a key for the development of the village as a whole. That is why one of the components of village government is village assembly through which citizens participates on village matters.Theory has been criticized by the scholars of efficiency services theory, they explains that democratic participation theory cannot be applicable in different political system in the same way especially in contemporary situation. Theory has also focus more on democracy rather provision of services which is one of the important function of village government to provide services to the citizens. One of limitation.• Efficiency Services TheoryThe essential issue of efficiency services theory is the fundamentally or principle target of local government is to give services to local people. One of the researcher of this approach French researcher Langood (1953) clarified that democracy was the matter of the country state as a whole, matter of majority rule, equity and uniformity are the norm standard. Local government conversely was worried about local contrasts and separation. Langood further explained it is not good to make local government as place for political training and democracy, he says that local government has provided very few political leader unlikely how democratic theory participation which explained local government is a ground for future political leaders. He explained residents are likely to learn about democracy from higher level and not local government. Sharpe (1970) gave an outstandingly strong case for local governments in light of the fact that it was the effective administrator for giving services that are essential locally. He prescribed that the effective execution of these services is compelling to the point that in the case that local government does not exist, something different should be made in its put (to provide the services), which means the local government is vital. The principle practical obligation of local governments in this theory is to proficiently complete local obligations dispensed to it, at the most astounding efficiency rate. The main assumption of efficiency services theory is the function of local government is to provide services to locals effectively. This is relatable to village government which services provision is also essential. Village government provides different services to its residents according to needs. Village government provides services like safety and security of the citizens, social services and also establishes small cooperative business for the development of the village.This theory has limitation; it does not take into account citizen participation in local government in my case village government which is also essential for development of the village. Because government needs to know the citizens needs and preference in order to provide services efficiently according to the needs. So participation is also essential.For the above two theories democratic participation and efficiency services theory, for the village to grow and develop it needs both, democratic participation as well as services provision. Because villagers needs to know the democracy which promote freedom, equality and uniformity and also needs services from the government. The two ideas are essential and more practical together. • Decentralization TheoryIs the most famous theory in Local government researches. It explains the shifting of power or authority from the central government to lower levels of government. The theory assumes that that decentralization leads to good governance since it promotes participation, accountability and other things. For the village government to exist central government needs to exercise decentralization. Different scholars explains types of decentralization, deconcentration is shifting of low level authority to central government ,delegation this is assigning responsibilities to someone else, devolution this is delegation of authority from central government to low level such as local level, privatision is a shifting of entity from government to private sector.2.1.2 Governance Structure Village GovernanceVillage government is a lower component of local government in Tanzania. Village governance is to help residents on matters concerning village. Village governance structure includes:? All citizens not less than 18years old.? Chairperson.? Village council members between 15 and 25.? Afisa mtendaji2.1.3 Citizen Participation in decision makingCitizen participation is a process where citizens are involved in decision making on village matters. According to (Stewart 1995), citizen participation is very important for society development. This is a way governance is shared with citizens, they give their inputs and they are worked on. According to sec 103 (2) of local government Act of No.7 1982 (R.E 2002), demand village assembly to be conducted every three month through this meeting citizens participates and gets chance to share their views , ides on the matter that affecting them as member of that village.Importance of Citizens participation.• It helps citizens to know problems in the community and find ways to resolve problems.• It helps citizens to know their place in the society.• Citizen participation enhances spirit of cooperation in the village and increase trust among members of the society.• It helps government to get different and new ides from the citizens and also exchange information during decision making process.• Citizen participation in decision making, policy formulation makes it easier for the government to implement policy, because all citizens agreed upon it.• Citizen participation helps to create accountable and responsible leaders and citizens. Leaders will do their job as well as citizens as agreed.• It also makes citizens to know village revenues and expenditures.Although citizen participation is important for development process in village it is also expensive and time consuming. Decision that would have been reached in 15minutes with 2 or 5 people it might take an hour or two with 10 or more people, because different people have different perspectives of the same issue. 2.1.4 Leaders Accountability Mechanism• Citizen participation- Citizens participation in village assembly and any other public hearing, helps them to know responsibilities both ways official and citizens. So when officials fail to do their responsibilities they have to answer to citizens why? So this helps officials to become more accountable to their responsibilities.• Opposition political part- Chairman of the village is a political leader, he is selected after every five years. Opposition political parties are also mechanism to hold leaders accountability, because they uncover and show failures or wrong doing of the party in power. • Word of Mouth- For the citizens to know what leaders are up to or what leaders do they need information. At village level information can be through word of mouth though at higher level (District or country) can be through media. And when citizens get information they hold leaders accountable using information they have through the word of mouth.• Village Assembly- Through village assembly people express their views and ideas. Also leaders explain duties, progress and any matter related to village progress. Through this assembly leaders are hold accountable on their action, work, and any matter concerns village.2.1.5 Effectiveness Of Village Assembly Village assembly is the one is the one of the pillars of village government other one being village council. It is established under local government Act no 7 of 1982. According the law meeting should be conducted after every three month that means four times a year. All citizens 18 and above are suppose to attend meeting. On the assembly purpose is to discuss matters concerning the village so for it to be effective all residents at required age must attend, because they will be affected for whatever decision has been agreed upon. Village assembly is conducted by chairman who is elected after every five years.Village assembly meeting should be informed seven (7) days prior the meeting has been held. Date is on the village timetable on the chairman’s office. Citizens are informed about the assembly through fliers, banners and advertisements using speakers (in cars), on the village notice board and word of mouth.Village assembly effective at certain percentage. Example Tondoroni village at Kisarawe district there are some elements which shows assembly are effective, because of the availability of social services to the citizens. There water and electricity at some area, there is education services primary school Tondoroni shule ya msingi and other small social services.Despite of the few elements of development attendance of citizens village assembly in reality is very low this is caused by most of the people to ignore this assembly. They find it is waste of time and unproductive but this is just ignorance because attending these meetings has huge impact on village development.Also people in the village are not well informed about these meeting, timing, location and agenda from the village committee makes assembly less effective. Also failure of village leaders to fulfill or achieve or work on what was discussed or agreed on last meeting makes villagers loose interest on attending village assembly.Function of Village Assembly:? To elect officials to became member of village council, must be a citizen of the said village.? Make and amend by –laws according to the need of the village? To remove officials if they do not adhere to the laws of the village government.? To make decision on all important matters concerning the village.? To provide justice to the citizens according to laws? To provide security to the village.What should be done to improve village government?1. Citizen participation in all matters concerning village, let it be on village assembly of elsewhere. Citizen participation increase leaders’ transparency and accountability. And it also becomes easy for any policy implementation because they were present when policy are selected and approved.2. Village assembly dates, location and agenda should be clear to citizens which will enable them to attend meeting and contribute accordingly for the development of the village.3. Leaders should be accountable, responsible, creative, innovative, and acceptable by majority. In case of any matter concerning the village development when he calls for meeting people respond positively because they trust him.