[1] 2005 and Cheunbarn & Peerapornpisal, 2010, Technical paper

1
Water in Crisis: A Guide to the
World’s Fresh Water Resources by Igor Shiklomanov’s Chapter “World fresh
water resources” in Peter H. Gleick (editor), 1993, (Oxford University
Press, New York)

2
Lecture by Chairman WAPDA at NDU.

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3
UNDP Journal “Development Advocate Pakistan, volume 3, issue 4”, editorial on
“Water security: Pakistan’s most critical development challenge”.

4
Lynden, Dr.
G.W.J. van. World Agriculture Land. Wageningen, The Netherlands, June
19, 2009.

5Comeau
& Mogens. “Wastewater Characterization.” In Biological Wastewater Treatment: Principles
Modelling and Design. Chapter 3, Page 33-52. London UK: International
Water Publishing, 2008.

6Munter, Rein. “Industrial Wastewater
Characteristics.” Chapter 18, Pages 185-194. Stolkholm, Sweden: The Baltic
University Programme (BUP), Sweden, 2003.

7’Improving wastewater use in agriculture: An emegring proirity’, Energy Transport and
Water Department Water Anchor (ETWWA), The World Bank, 2010.

8Angelakis
& Koutsoyiannis. “Urban wastewater technologies in ancient
Greece.” Water Research, 2005.

9Shuval,
Fattal & Yekutiel. Wastewater Irrigation in Developing Countries: Health
Effects and Technical Solutions. Technical Paper no. 51, Washington DC: World
Bank, 1986.

10Sharma & Shangi,
Technical paper on wastewater irrigation; 2013.

11Liu,
2005 and Cheunbarn & Peerapornpisal, 2010, Technical paper on waste water
issues.

12Sharma, 2007 &
Ahmad, 2010, Technical Paper on issues of waste water irrigation.

13Khurshid, 1999, paper
on water issues.

14Point Sources of
Pollution- Local Effects and its control – Vol I (Industrial wastewater- Types,
Amounts & its Effects) hanchang SHI available at http://www.eloss.net.

15(Mubin et al; 2002)

16(Makia et al.
1999)

17Jeroen, Tariq & Wim
van der, ‘A nationwide assessment of wastewater use in Pakistan:an obscure
activity or a vitally important one? Water Policy, June 2004.

18
Ibid.

  Ibid.

 

 Jeroen, Tariq &
Wim van der, ‘A nationwide assessment of wastewater use in Pakistan:an obscure
activity or a vitally important one? Water Policy, June 2004.

 

(Makia et al. 1999)

 

1(Mubin et al; 2002)

 

1Point Sources of Pollution- Local
Effects and its control – Vol I (Industrial wastewater- Types, Amounts &
its Effects) hanchang SHI available at http://www.eloss.net.

 

1Khurshid, 1999, paper on water issues.

 

1Sharma, 2007 & Ahmad, 2010,
Technical Paper on issues of waste water irrigation.

 

1Liu, 2005 and Cheunbarn
& Peerapornpisal, 2010, Technical paper on waste water issues.

 

1Sharma
& Shangi, Technical paper on wastewater irrigation; 2013.

 

 Shuval, Fattal & Yekutiel. Wastewater
Irrigation in Developing Countries: Health Effects and Technical Solutions.
Technical Paper no. 51, Washington DC: World Bank, 1986.

 

 Angelakis & Koutsoyiannis. “Urban
wastewater technologies in ancient Greece.” Water Research, 2005.

 

‘Improving
wastewater use in agriculture: An emegring proirity’, Energy Transport and
Water Department Water Anchor (ETWWA), The World Bank, 2010.

 

 Munter, Rein. “Industrial Wastewater
Characteristics.” Chapter 18, Pages 185-194. Stolkholm, Sweden: The Baltic
University Programme (BUP), Sweden, 2003.

 

Comeau
& Mogens. “Wastewater Characterization.” In Biological Wastewater
Treatment: Principles Modelling and Design. Chapter 3, Page 33-52. London UK:
International Water Publishing, 2008.

 

1 Lynden, Dr. G.W.J. van. World Agriculture Land.
Wageningen, The Netherlands, June 19, 2009.

 

1 UNDP Journal
“Development Advocate Pakistan, volume 3, issue 4”, editorial on “Water
security: Pakistan’s most critical development challenge”.

 

1 Lecture by Chairman
WAPDA at NDU.

 

Water
in Crisis: A Guide to the World’s Fresh Water Resources by Igor Shiklomanov’s
Chapter “World fresh water resources” in Peter H. Gleick (editor),
1993, (Oxford University Press, New York)

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

 

e.       Way Forward.        Some pertinent recommendations based on
the analysis of previous chapters.

d.       Strategy
for Reuse of Effluents/Waste Water.         This
chapter discusses the strategy on purification and reuse of effluents/ waste
water for agriculture, its implementation/enforcement, need to create awareness amongst the masses about potential hazards
associated with wastewater irrigation, role of government in formulation as
well as enforcement of necessary regulations for wastewater treatment.

c.       Available
Options on Reuse of Waste Water.          This
chapter takes a critical look at the feasibility of options/methods available
in-country and worldwide on purification of effluents/waste water before reuse,
practical manifestation of its implementation in our society as well as cost
factor for initial setup and further utilization.

b.       Analysis
of Problem – Reuse of Effluents/Waste Water.    This includes research and collection of statistical data on
reuse of effluents/waste water for agriculture in Pakistan and elsewhere,
analysis of effluents/ waste water being utilized for agriculture and harmful
effects on human beings and soil.

a. Introduction / Thesis Statement.     Introduction of the subject including some
facts about water scarcity, significance of water management in the backdrop of
current and future water resources, options and methods available for reuse of
effluents/waste water as well as its prospects.

 

18.     Proposed outline to be followed for the
research is as follows:

OUTLINE/
ORGANIZATION OF STUDY

 

(9)      Recommendations.

(8)      Conclusions.

(7)      Testing Hypothesis (Comparison of Findings with Hypothesis).

(6)      Research Findings.

(5)      Analysis of Data.

(4)      Collection of Data.

         (3)      Formulation of Hypothesis.

         (2)      Literature Review.

         (1)      Stating Research problem.

e.      Research
Process.          Steps for
research process include:

 

d.       Data Analysis.       Data
analysis will be done by summarizing collected data to present most important
features.  A comparative analysis
technique is considered most feasible for formulation of summary, conclusion
and recommendations.

 

c.       Data Collection.     Both,
primary source and secondary data will be acquired during the research.  Collection of Primary data will be based on
personal interviews whereas lectures delivered by eminent scholars in NDU,
internet articles, newspapers, and periodicals etc will be collected and
analyzed to gather secondary sources of information.

 

b.       Research Methodology.            As the paper is aimed at development of strategy for
reuse of drainage effluents/ wastewater for agriculture, therefore, qualitative
method will be used.

 

a.       Type of Research. Keeping in view research problem / questions it is intended to use
analytical research process.  An analytical research, is one in which
evaluation is made by critically analyzing already known or held information.

 

17.     Following methodology will be used for
research:

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

e.              
To review and recommend measures, reforms and awareness
programs required to be formulated/ implemented by the Government of Pakistan
to counter water contamination related problems and viability of wastewater
irrigation.

d.              
To ascertain how soil irrigated with
wastewater is being affected.

c.              
To ascertain how farmers and
consumers of vegetables grown through wastewater irrigation are being affected.

b.              
To ascertain how vegetables grown through wastewater
irrigation are being affected.

a.              
To review the drainage of effluents and its use for
agriculture in Pakistan.

16.     Following
objectives have been set for the study: 

 OBJECTIVES
OF THE STUDY

 

d.              
What measures, reforms and awareness programs
are required to be formulated and implemented by the Government to prevent use of untreated wastewater for agriculture
while recommending workable strategy?

c.              
Whether the use of wastewater for irrigation is
deteriorating the quality of soil?

b.              
What kind of health problems are expected/
being experienced in the public consuming crops irrigated from waste?

a.              
What kind of harmful components form part of
the municipal and industrial waste?

15.     Due
to the absence of proper drainage and water treatment system in the country,
industrial and municipal effluents/ waste water is thrown into the canals and
rivers. Certain quantity of this untreated water is also utilized for
agriculture mostly in and around urban areas primarily due to water scarcity
and poor or non-existent water management and storage system in the country.
Since the problem of water scarcity is aggravating day by day, re-use of
drainage effluents/ waste water has become need of the time. However,
considering the possible negative impacts of this untreated water, a well
thought out and practicable strategy needs to be developed while answering the following questions:

MAJOR/MINOR QUESTIONS

 

14.     Literature review depicts that ample amount
of research efforts have already been made in-country and abroad on reuse of
drainage effluents/ wastewater for agriculture. Relevant departments are also
functioning in the country, but somehow implementation of laws/ regulations is
lacking probably due to lack of human and material resources. Furthermore,
there is requirement to shortlist practicable wastewater treatment methodology
that suits our requirement and available human and material resources to ensure
its implementation.

GAP OF KNOWLEDGE

 

13.     Detailed analysis of the above variable will
be undertaken to validate research hypothesis for development of workable
strategy for reuse of drainage effluents/ wastewater for agriculture.

 

          d.       Control
Variable – Implementation strategies.

c.       Intervening Variable – Relevant
authorities responsible for wastewater treatment laws and implementation.

          b.       Independent
Variable- Drainage effluents/ wastewater.

a.       Dependent Variable –  Consumers of wastewater crops, farmers and
soil.

 

 

12.     From above discussion, it is evident that
reuse of untreated water is being practiced in most parts of urban as well as
rural areas of Pakistan primarily due to water scarcity and lack of suitable
water treatment infrastructure. Furthermore, farmers and related work force
seems to be unaware of its harmful effects primarily due to lack of knowledge.
It is therefore imperative that an evidence based study be made so as to establish
that what kind of harmful effects are being faced from use of untreated
wastewater in Pakistan. This study would endeavor to establish that what
options/ techniques are available for wastewater treatment in the country along
with detailed analysis of its suitability for Pakistan. The study would include
survey of latest techniques being used around the world for reuse of drainage
effluents, interviews of relevant stake holders from agriculture and water
treatment fields and analysis of soil, crops and water samples where required. The
variables to be analyzed are as follows:

THEORETICAL
FRAMEWORK

 

11.     In Pakistan, the untreated wastewater has
been traditionally used even before its independence. However, with the growth
in population and the scarcity of fresh water, together with a demand for fresh
vegetables, absence of regulations on its use and an element of greed has
triggered vide use of untreated wastewater around all urban areas having a
population of 10,000 or more17. A nationwide assessment
in Pakistan18
showed that the direct use of untreated wastewater for agriculture,
particularly vegetable production, was common in most cities. The main reasons
for this use were the absence of alternative water sources, the reliability of
the wastewater supply, the nutrient value and the proximity to urban markets.
It was estimated that 26% of the total domestic vegetable production of
Pakistan was cultivated with wastewater. It is evident from the available
literature on the subject that awareness regarding harmful effects resulting
from direct use of untreated wastewater exists among the policy makers.
However, practicable steps to effectively manipulate this problem have to be
taken and forcefully implemented.

10.     The current practice of the use of
wastewater is characterized by farms which are located near to the densely
populated urban centres; the water that is used comes in majority as municipal
waste, and is predominantly used for growing of fresh vegetables for daily
supply to the urban markets. Municipal effluents are one of the major reasons
for rapidly degrading environment in the metropolitans of developing countries
lacking in wastewater treatment facilities. The industrial activities have
already caused substantial water pollution leading to adverse effect on the
vegetation as well as to the human beings and aquatic life15. The quality of water can
be assessed by chemical analyses using the parameters like conductivity,
alkalinity, hardness, total dissolved solids, chlorides as well as dissolved
oxygen16.

9.       The use of industrial and municipal
wastewater in agriculture is a common practice in many parts of the world12. Disposal of the
untreated wastewater into drains and ultimately into the rivers, deteriorate
the water quality and harms aquatic life. Due to discharge of the untreated
effluents from industries, the dissolved oxygen (DO) level decreases whereas
biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total dissolved solids (TDS) is increasing13. Following table indicate
type of pollutants from effluents of different industrial sectors14.

8.       Rough estimate indicates that at least 20 million hectares in
50 countries are irrigated with raw or partially treated wastewater. The major
objectives of wastewater irrigation are that it provides a reliable source of
water supply to farmers and has the beneficial aspects of adding valuable plant
nutrients and organic matter to soil11. Wastewater effluent at
least for irrigation use, could be a valuable source to augment this dwindling
water supply, and should not continue to be wasted. Reuse of wastewater
effluent could both decrease the disposal of water to the environment and
reduce the demand on fresh water supplies.

7.       Drainage water is being used for
agriculture since ages with oldest known history of its use by the Minoans some
4000 years ago7.
Human excreta was also being used in East Asia to fertilize crops and replenish
depleted soil nutrients since ancient times8. The earliest documented
sewage farms with wastewater application to land for disposal and for
agricultural use were started in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in
Bunzlau, Germany and Edinburgh, Scotland9. Over the past few decades, re-use of wastewater has come under the focus
of researchers from all over the world to fight the rapidly growing water
scarcity. Use of wastewater for agriculture purposes has taken a solid
stem since past four decades and is being effectively used in semi-arid and
arid areas around the world10.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

 

6.       The
study is being conducted to develop
strategy for re-use of drainage effluents/ waste water for agriculture while
avoiding the its harmful impacts in Pakistan. The research aims to provide
important insight into drainage of effluents and its impact on agriculture in
Pakistan. The solution shall particularly focus on highlighting the positive
and negatives aspects of wastewater irrigation and possible measures to
overcome this problem. It shall provide background research on technical,
economic and environmental aspects of wastewater irrigation in Pakistan. Based
on the findings, way forward will be recommended.

SIGNIFICANCE
OF THE STUDY

 

Hypothesis: “Uncontrolled
use of wastewater for agriculture purposes due to water scarcity, absence of clear, practicable regulations/
by-laws coupled with lack of implementation strategy is source of serious
health issues for consumers and farmers while being source of soil
deterioration as well as overall contamination of environment.”

5.       A
‘Composite Hypothesis’ has been
selected for the study as the problem being discussed involves relationship
between two or more independent or dependent variables. The
detailed hypothesis, or basis for the research, not being experimental in
nature, rests in the research questions. Hypothesis
for this research is as follows:

HYPOTHESES

 

4.       Drainage effluents/ waste water can be
divided into three main categories. The wastewater originating from domestic areas
is called ‘municipal waste’, whereas, water originating from industrial use
comes under the category of ‘industrial waste’. Generally, the waste water
coming from urban areas contains non-treated industrial and municipal
effluents. The Municipal effluent contains more than 95% water, but also
contains pathogens such as bacteria and viruses, other organic particles such
as feces, hairs, food, paper fibers, plant material, etc., soluble organic
material such as urea, fruit sugars, soluble proteins, drugs, pharmaceuticals,
etc., and inorganic particles such as sand, grit, metal particles, ceramics,
etc5. While the Industrial
effluents contain organic or inorganic solid suspended particles in addition to
dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and multiple Volatile Organic
Compounds (VOC). Excessive quantity of heavy metals including Chromium from
chromium plating, Copper from copper plating, Zinc from galvanizing zinc
plating, etc is also found in industrial wastes. It is pertinent to highlight
that presence of these chemicals and metals is extremely harmful for the soil
as well as human being.6

 

3.       Re-use of drainage effluents/ waste water
for agriculture provides a quick and cost-effective solution to address the
menace of water scarcity and is therefore being practiced in Pakistan as well
as by other arid/ semi-arid countries of the world faced with this challenge4. However, like many other
poor countries practicing re-use of drainage effluents/ waste water, treatment
of this water before utilization for agriculture is not being ensured which
becomes a source of concern due to the negative effects on human beings
consuming crops thus cultivated. Drainage effluents/ waste water come from
industrial and municipal origins and are mostly lack the important requirement
of requisite treatment prior its application for agriculture/ irrigation of
crops. Use of such water is more common in urban areas where higher costs as
well as shortage of fresh water are more pronounced. However, It is pertinent
to highlight that use of such water without suitable treatment poses serious
threats to human beings consuming crops being thus cultivated. Moreover, in the
absence of requisite drainage and waste water treatment system, this harmful
water also contaminates canals and rivers which become an alternate source
contamination of crops.

 

2.       Pakistan is no exception to this
universal issue. In-fact, availability of fresh water for use of living beings
in Pakistan has become a grave concern due to poor water management,
non-availability/ lack of water storage capacity and rapidly diminishing
available water resources above and below the surface of earth. We are the
third most water stressed country in the world, with our current per capita
annual water availability 1,017 cubic meters (down from 1,500 cubic meters in
2009). As per scientific estimates, the country may run dry by 2025 if we do
not take immediate, collective actions2. Presently, water storage
capacity has receded to less than 30 days against the minimum requirement of
120 days. Provision of fresh water to living beings including agriculture is
therefore likely to become the biggest challenge in near future. Agriculture sector
of Pakistan consumes around 91.6% of the total annual water use in the country;
followed by environment at 3.3%, domestic at 2.6% and industry at 2.5%3. Considering the water
scarcity challenges vis-à-vis requirement of human and other living beings, saving
and e?cient management of water is crucial while focusing on provision of
suitable alternate means for irrigation.

 

1.       Almost 2/3rd part of the globe
is covered with water. However, only 2.5% of the entire water available on
earth is fresh water. Remaining 97.5% of water sources available on earth
contain saline contents and cannot be used for consumption by the living beings
(human beings, animals, plants etc). From the available fresh water, around 70%
is frozen in Antarctica and Greenland icecap therefore in reality only 1% of
the earth’s fresh water is available for usage. Most of the remaining fresh
water exists as soil moisture or lays underground, too deep to be accessible1. Consequently, water is
becoming a scarce commodity all over the world with the passage of time

INTRODUCTION

 

DEVELOPMENT
OF STRATEGY FOR REUSE OF DRAINAGE EFFLUENTS / WASTE WATER FOR AGRICULTURE

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