2.0 Review of Related
Literature and Studies
This chapter presents the materials used such as
books, magazines, journals, internet and other thesis writing to support the
relevance of the ordering system with barcode scanner of Nanay’s Pancit
Related literature is the annotation
of available papers both published and unpublished that contain information or
evidence related to the topic that a person proposes to research on. It is the
use of ideas in the literature to defend your paper such as the methods used in
the study. Foreign and Local researchers have been noted these related
Self-service or self-ordering
systems in restaurants refer to the restaurants taking orders from customers
using technologies such as the internet, kiosks etc. Usually, the users prefer
self-service because of speed and convenience in making order and transaction
while minimizing the miscommunication. The advantage is that there is no money
related issues as the transactions are done (Prema, 2015).
The existing framework is
paper-based. The conventional menu cards in the eateries are paper-based.
Servers utilize paper to compose the arrange of clients. The track record is
put away on paper. As with anything paper-based, it is so simple for things to
get harmed by coffee discoloration etc, or paper being misplaced due to fire or
mishaps or fair for the most part misplaced. There is wastage of time, cash,
and paper. As conventional menu cards are paper-based, any changes that require
to be make in the menu card will lead to wastage. As it will require
republishing of all the menu cards. Moreover, for little changes, it is not
conceivable to print all the menu cards once more and once more. There is no
control to powerfully make any changes in the menu card. To get to a specific
record from the stack of papers is not productive. From the customer’s point of
see, this framework is time-consuming. As one has to hold up until the server
comes to take the arrange, one has to call server number of times till he takes
note it, there can be misinterpretation while the waiter is writing your order
on paper, and it might be possible that you are served with a wrong dish.
There has been enhancements in the
administration of eateries. Each server is doled out a bunch of tables, after
taking orders for a table the servers enter the orders (a list of dishes and drinks
requested by the burger joint or bunch of coffee shops) into the framework at
the PC. The server as a rule knows of any dishes that are inaccessible some
time recently taking an arrange. The framework must affirm the accessibility of
dishes. Ought to an thing not be accessible the framework must permit the
server to alter or indeed erase a customer’s arrange. Dishes to be arranged are
sent to the kitchen, drinks orders to the bar. Starters and fundamental course
orders are ordinarily taken together. Drinks and forsake orders may be taken
independently. Kitchen staff sees the dish orders on their screen, plan them in
an fitting arrangement and affirm planning to the framework when total, so also
with the bar. When a server sees the completion signs on his terminal he
collects the things and takes them to the table. The server can too check on
the status of dish and drink orders. At the end of the meal the waiter will
have the system print a bill, and he will enter the details of payment for it.
The management can give discounts. The system keeps track of the numbers of
customers served by each waiter and the amount of money taken by each waiter.
The management can view these statistics. The next advancement was QORDER: the
portable ordering system for Android devices. Here the waiter no longer
approaches the table with his notepad, but rather with the QOrder hand held
device. He enters order information on the touch screen and then sends it to
the kitchen in real time for processing. Simultaneously, your POS system
receives the sales information for later billing. QOrder utilizes WIFI to
easily reach to your most remote corner spot in your establishment. Once the
guests wish to leave, the waiter prints the receipt out on his belt printer and
processes payment with the handheld unit much like he would on the POS system
The system provides a more
convenient and accurate method for restaurant staff since orders are
transferred to server in kitchen immediately and displayed to the chefs for
further process. Other than that, it also can minimize the waiting time spent
at the restaurant because of the greater speed of service. By using this
system, the restaurant efficiency and productivity also can be increased.
• Increases productivity and
reduces labour cost.
• Reduces turn around between
orders and time to serve.
• Eliminates revenue leakages by
ensuring all orders are billed.
• Leads to better controls by mapping all
orders to customer’s bills.
• Enables centralized real-time monitoring of
business at multiple locations
• Minimal implementation cost.
The system would attract customers
and atomized system will reduce chaos and confusion at food pick up counters.
And also adds to the efficiency of maintaining the restaurant’s ordering and
billing sections (Raj Nirali, 2015).
A barcode is “A machine-readable code in the form of
numbers and a pattern of parallel lines of varying widths, printed on and
identifying a product.” But in truth a barcode is so much more. Barcode System help
businesses and organizations track products, prices, and stock levels for
centralized management in a computer software system allowing for incredible
increases in productivity and efficiency.
The lines and patterns on a barcode are actually
representations of numbers and data and their development allowed basic
information about a product to be easily read by an optical scanning
device, a barcode
scanner, and automatically
entered into a computer system. This vastly reduced the time it took to record
such information and eliminated the potential for human data entry error.
Barcodes started out with simple 1-dimensional designs,
consisting of basic black lines that could only be read by specially designed
barcode scanners. However, today barcodes come in
many shapes and sizes and a wide range of designs and many can even be read by
mobile phones and other devices (Trujillo, 2015).
Advantage of Barcode
Small businesses wanting to make a big impact with customers can
utilize 2D barcodes. 2D barcodes can include more information in the code
than their 1D counterpart, like price, quantity, web address or even an image.
business owners constantly need to be improving to stay ahead of the
competition and to keep up with the marketplace. One important tool that can be
used to improve your small business is a 2D Barcode. There are user friendly
and inexpensive for customers and employees to utilize.
Marketing Manager, Brad Vinson, from Wasp Barcode Technologies, suggests “the
biggest breakthrough in barcode technology has been the invention of 2D
barcodes and camera-based 2D image readers.” The creation of the 2D barcode
enables a customer to be captured by something as simple as a sales brochure
with a QR code on it. The code will direct anyone to the
desired website to make purchases and the sale can be wrapped up in only
business owners have probably encountered 2D barcodes and perhaps thought
about using them for their own business. While this tool might seem to be
an expensive type of marketing and only for big companies with big budgets, 2D
barcodes are actually the perfect tool for a small business looking to make a big impact.
linear, or 1D barcodes, can only contain a limited amount of information,
roughly the equivalent of about 20 characters. 2D barcodes can store much
more information, up to 7,000 digits or 4,000 characters of information.
Most 2D barcodes can also be read by mobile devices and phones equipped
with basic cameras that scan both 2D and 1D barcodes. 2D barcodes are
inexpensive to create and use and with the cost of 2D barcode scanners dropping
substantially, this is an affordable option for businesses of any budget.
There are many different ways to use 2D
barcodes and barcode scanners for a small business. Instead of asking why
2D barcodes should be utilized, small businesses need to focus on how to use 2D barcodes and
barcode scanners to help their business succeed. Below are 3 ways to improve
business operations and to help small businesses grow with 2D barcodes (Trujillo, 2015).
maintains its dominant position in restaurant firms, since it is the core of
food and beverage operations. Specifically, menu is an instructor that clearly
dictates (I) what will be produced, (II) what type of equipment and ingredients
are needed, and (III) which qualifications employees should have. Menu also
functions as a communicating and selling tool (Kincaid and
specifically, it communicates not only the food and beverage offerings, but
also the image of the firm. Furthermore, menu is a base on which the customers
make their food choices and a well-designed menu can direct customers’
attention to the items the firm wants to sell more (Antun and Gustafson, 2015).
The workers are not alert of their jobs.
Customers have to wait for them to take the orders or clean up the table. The
workers need to know that the waiting time for food is a crucial factor for
customers’ satisfaction and complaint (Shimmura et al., 2010).
The waiter sometimes forgot to take orders
from the customers who already decided on their meals although they had been in
the restaurant earlier than the other customers. They did not put on a friendly
smile when taking the order from customers and this gave bad impression to the
restaurant. The workers were lacked of moral encouragement from the management
staff. The management staff did not give enough advice or critics to the
employees. Whenever the employees committed mistakes in their work, they rarely
gave advice or comment for them to improve their work quality. The attitudes of
the customers also contributed to the slow service of a restaurant as some of
them have bad temper and are impatient.
Agreeing to Mr. Michael A. Sarapi
(2016), Common Supervisor of MJ Eatery found at Sta. Cruz, Manila California
Town, Novaliches Quezon City. In terms of requesting exchanges, the eatery
gotten orders over the counter. The client will select their arrange in printed
menu and go to the counter. The client will donate their arrange and their
installment. After arrange was made the client will get a number the number
benefit as their recognizable proof so that the server can effortlessly
distinguish where they will donate the cooked dish or supper. The as it were
computerized framework their eatery is the catering occasion. The client must
donate a down installment. The eatery acknowledge reservation for parties and
other catering occasions Client must provide a down installment so that the reservation
will be acknowledged. According to Ms. Joy Santos and Ms. Irene Lalu (2015), Manager
of Sales Diner Restaurant, this located at Susano Road, Deparo Caloocan City.
In terms of their ordering transaction, the restaurant received orders from the
customer over the counter. Customer will choose their order in a printed
display menu above the counter. Customer will receive a printed receipt after
the order was made the customer will receive easily identify where they will
give the cooked dish or meal. The restaurants accept reservation for parties
and other catering events customer must give a down payment the restaurant
accept the reservation for parties and other catering events.
to Ms. Evagelista Ongpauco (2014), Director of Barrio Celebration found at Sm
North, Edsa with today’s fast-paced world, finding time to have supper is
nearly incomprehensible. Most of the time you’d Or maybe catching on a few rest
or you’re surging wrap up final week workload some time recently this week roll
in Eatery like Barrio Celebration have made conceivable for families to come
together, sit down to a great supper of Filipino.
The related studies are one of the
most important factors to consider before conducting a research or study. The
proponents were able to found out that there are a lot of studies before that
is related to the one presented now.
To design a product well, a design
teams needs to know what it is they are designing, and what the end-users will
expect from it. Quality Function Deployment is a systematic approach to design
based on a close awareness of customer desires, coupled with the integration of
corporate functional groups. It consists in translating customer desires (for
example, the ease of writing for a pen) into design characteristics (pen ink
viscosity, pressure on ball-point) for each stage of the product development
Ordering can also take up a large part
of store employees’ time, thus using valuable resources. Not surprisingly,
automated store ordering (ASO) or computer assisted
ordering (CAO) have been offered as solutions for improving performance and
reducing costs since the beginning of the nineties, when the electronic
point-of-sale (EPOS) systems became more common (Corsten and
Gruen, 2010; Baron and Lock, 2011; Thayer, 2011).
It has also been argued that ASO can help to
reduce inventories in stores
Vorst et al., 2012).
However, despite the potential
advantages, it seems that the majority of retailers have only just started to
implement automated ordering systems at store level. This master’s thesis examines how automated
store ordering could more efficiently be utilized to improve store operations
There are two types of production
ordering systems. One is the push type production ordering system and another
is pull type production ordering system. In the push type production ordering
system, the ordered quantity in each stage is determined by forecasted demand.
In this system the ordered quantity of each production stage is ordered by a
central controller. Material flows are controlled just as if they are pushed
out from the raw materials stage toward the final stage. In pull type
production ordering systems, the ordered quantities in each stage are
determined by actual quantities consumed by the immediate downriver stage. Here
no central controller is needed. Material flows are controlled just as if they
pulled into the final product stage from the stages preceding final production
(Raouf and Daya, 2013).
The former type of integration
implies that the system consists of two levels, the upper level consisting of a
push type production ordering system and the lower level consisting of a pull
type ordering system (Brennann and Gupta, 2014).
Touchscreen Based Ordering
System for Restaurants
Automation has gained importance in
every field of human life. But there are still some fields where more
traditional methods are being employed. One such field is the ordering system
in restaurants. Generally, in restaurants menu ordering system will be
available in paper format from that the customer has to select the menu items
and then the order is handed over to waiter who takes the corresponding order,
which is a very time-consuming process. A
fully automated ordering system in which the conventional paper based menu is
replaced by a more user-friendly touchscreen based menu card. The system
consists of microcontroller which is interfaced with the input and output
modules. The input module is the touchscreen sensor which is placed on GLCD to
have graphical image display, which takes the input from the user and provides
the same to the microcontroller. The output module is a RF module which is used
for communication between system at table and system at ordering department.
Microcontroller also displays the menu items on the GLCD. At the receiving end
the selected items will be displayed on the LCD and the ordering department
will note down the order received (Shriwas, 2014).
Walk into almost any office and you will
find large numbers of filing cabinets and drawers full of file folders. Storing
all this data electronically using an application package not only saves space
but makes accessing and analyzing the data easier and faster
A concept central to electronic filing –
and too great a deal of this book – is the database. A database is a group of
related files where a file is a major collection of data in specific
application area. For example, all the payroll files, personnel files, and
salary history files in the company might be defined as a database. Because
they are interrelated, database files can be linked together and used in many
ways (Sprague Jr. 2013).
Strategic management is another promising
theoretical perspective that helps us understand the importance of menu and its
associated managerial activities with reference to competitiveness of
restaurants. Indeed, creating and sustaining a competitive advantage is the
main focus of strategic management discipline. More specifically, strategic
management principally investigates the phenomenon of sustainable competitive
advantage as a source of performance differences among business firms (Nerur et al., 2010)
Following this argument, it is plausible to
consider the role of menu in creating sustainable competitive advantage for
restaurants. In particular, offering a unique meal experience and assuring
customer satisfaction are the main sources of competitive advantage for a
restaurant. As one of the important components of meal experience, menu
deserves a special attention to understand how a restaurant firm can achieve
its strategic goals, can create a sustainable competitive advantage, can
satisfy its customers and can outperform the rivals.
Training and Development
and development are needed for all of the staff in a restaurant because it
enhances the ability of employees to deliver a high-quality service and to meet
the needs of customers more effectively and in a friendly way (Chow and Komaran, 2011).
skills can be developed and grown inside the employees who are important to
meet the long-term goals in embracing the customers’ needs through innovation,
product and excellent customer service.
perspectives of organizational, selling and strategic management theories
provide a reliable theoretical groundwork to understand the important
managerial scene of menu. For instance, organization theory explicitly
emphasizes the influence of external environment both on the decisions of firm
managers and the survival of firms on the long run. More specifically, external
environment is one of the central themes of organization theory and the
relevant studies primarily propose that managers essentially consider the
influential external factors that create uncertainty, diversity and volatility
while making their decisions. Planning and operating menus in a restaurant
context involve considering external factors such as customers, rivals, and
vendors that have a great potential in creating uncertainty, diversity and
volatility in the restaurants’ immediate business environment. Complementing
this view, marketing theory recognizes the importance of identifying the needs
and expectations of customers, and developing and improving products and
service perfectly fit to those needs and expectations. Additionally, pricing,
promoting and distributing the products and services should also be consistent
with the customers’ needs and expectations on the one hand, and with the firm’s
objectives on the other hand. Thus, in the restaurant context, it is imperative
that menu as the food and beverage combinations offered by a restaurant
reflects the expectations and needs of customers. Moreover, managing menus
involves planning, pricing, designing, distributing and promotional decisions
which are also the main issues of marketing (Duncan, 2010; Jurkovich, 2011; Dess and Beard, 2011;
Ashill and Jobber, 2012).
food industry, it is crucial for restaurants to achieve high level of customer
satisfaction and this can be achieved through superior customer service. Undoubtedly,
the success of a restaurant business depends on superior service quality, value
and customer’s satisfaction. (Chow and Komaran, 2011).
customer help creates experiences that can meet customer expectations. It
produces satisfied clients. Bad customer service causes disappointments and
generates complaints. It can solvent in lost sales, because consumer most
probably will switch to the competitors. Good customer service involves developing
commodity bonding with customers, hopefully leading to good and human
relationships. It creates advantages for both customers and the business alike.
Customers benefit because the business is providing a service that meets their
Science and technology are essential for
national development and progress. The State shall give priority to research
and development, invention, and their utilization, and to science and
technology education according to the 1987 Philippine Constitution (Article
XIV, Section 10).
In exploration, new techniques, new
knowledge, event develop new substances, gadgets, equipment, processes or
procedures, imagination and skill is employed by the researcher. The
commodities, new devices, services, in technology are needs of man for a better
fuller life which is the concern of the research. These useful arts are the
products of the technological environment and the end-user is society in
Definition of Terms
Automated – convert (a process or facility) to largely
Dominant – most important, powerful, or influential.
Firm – is a business organization, such as a
corporation, limited liability company or partnership, that sells goods or
services to make a profit.
Ordering – request (something) to be made, supplied, or
Phenomenon – a fact, occurrence, or circumstance observed
or observable: something that is impressive or extraordinary.
Plausible – (of an argument or statement) seeming
reasonable or probable. (of a person) skilled at producing persuasive
arguments, especially ones intended to deceive.
Sole proprietor – a person who is the exclusive owner of a
business, entitled to keep all profits after tax has been paid but liable for
Theoretical – concerned with or involving the theory of a
subject or area of study rather than its practical application.
Trend – a general direction in which something is
developing or changing.
Underpinnings – a set of ideas, motives, or
devices that justify or form the basis for something.