DRUG specific therapeutic agents. Ayurveda is the first to

DRUG REVIEW

 

INTRODUCTION:

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

“The Glory of Medicine is
that it is constantly moving forward, that there is always more to learn.

The ill of today do not cloud the horizon of tomorrow,
but acts as a spur to greater effort”

-William James Mayo

In India the medical
science, has developed from ancient civilization which used parts of plants and
animal. It has progressed from an era of empririasim to the present stage of
specific therapeutic agents. Ayurveda is the first to give an elaborate
description of various therapeutic measures calculated to aim at, not merely of
radical removal of the causative factors but also at the restoration of Dosha
equilibrium.

Ayurveda, the science of life, mostly deals with medicinal
plants. In Rigveda and Atharvaveda there are large numbers of
medicinal plants mentioned to be used as drugs. Herbal drugs are serving the
human society from the time immemorial in curing various ailments. The
ancestors of India lived with the plants, carefully observed them and
identified them by organoleptic evaluation, prepared the medicines themselves
and the suffering mankind was relieved by administering those genuine drugs.

The word drug is derived from the French word “Drogue” means dry herb. Drug
as defined by WHO is a substance or product that is used or intended to be used
to modify or explore the physiological systems or pathological states for the
benefits of the recipient.1 Drug hold a significant role in the
treatment regimen and plays an important role in achieving success against
disease like arsenal for the chikitsa. Drug is the only source to break the
Samprapti after excluding all Shalya Vidhi.

HISTORICAL REVIEW:

Vedas are the oldest written testimonials available to
mankind on this earth. Plenty of
medicinal uses have been enumerated in these authentic texts. But there is no
description of Kshara in Vedic literature. In Upanishada, the use of word Kshara is found but nothing has been
described in detail.

In  this 
regard,  detailed  explanation 
regarding  Kshara  has  been 
made  by

Sushruta. Only Sushruta has
dedicated a chapter to Kshara. He has
narrated Kshara considering its scope
in Shalya Tantra due to its qualities
like Chhedana, Bhedana, Lekhana etc.

Consequently
in the period of Samhita, Charaka has dealt with definition, varieties,
properties & application of Kshara.
Charaka has mentioned two types of Kshara preparation. In 1st chapter of Vimana sthana, definition, general properties and adverse effects of Kshara are mentioned2. He has also specified that Kshara does not possess a single Rasa, but it possess multiple Rasas because it is a Dravya prepared from various drugs and
consist all rasas except Amla rasa.
Apart from that, in surgical description also, Kshara has been mentioned as “Shastra pranidhana” 3

Dalhana, the eminent
commentator of Sushruta Samhita
explained the word ‘Ksharana’ as one which mobilizes and removes the deformed flesh, skin etc. and also
removes the vitiated Doshas from
their location.

DESCRIPTION OF KSHARA:

Treatment by Kshara is technically termed as Kshara Karma and it comes under the
scope of Shalya Tantra, while Acharya Charaka has considered it as one
of the three fold treatment i.e. Shashtra
Pranidhana. In Harita Samhita, Kshara Karma is included in the eight
important types of treatment.

Sushruta has narrated Kshara as
an AnuShastra, Upayantra and one of
the Upakramas of Vrana.

Sushruta emphasizes on the fact that, when the Kshara administered by an ignorant physician can harm the body
like Agni, Shastra and Vajra or can
cause death itself. While the same Kshara
when administered by an intelligent and well skilled physician can prove potent
enough to subside all serious and most troublesome diseases rapidly in which it
is indicated. Thus, Kshara Karma has
been considered as a wealth and a strong weapon in Ayurvedic pharmacopeia.

Etymology:

·       
The term Kshara is derived from two root words i.e. ‘Chhana’, ‘Chhar’
means ‘Shlathan’ or destroyer because of
its capability to destroy the substance like an unhealthy tissue of the
body and vitiated flesh etc.

·       
In Amarkosh, Kshara term is
denoted as „Kach?. This gives the
meaning of movement (Sanchalan).

·       
In Sabadakalpadruma “Kshara” is derived from
Dhatu ‘Kshara’ which gives the meaning
of movement (Sanchalan).4

Analyzing the derivation,
the word Kshara means Spandan, Hinsa and Ksharana. The
root meaning of Kshara gives the
meaning of violence which destroys the
skin, tissues etc. from the body by cutting or destroying them. In Sushruta Samhita, the substance that expels out the ‘Dushta Tvaka
Mamsadi’ by its Kshrana action is called Kshara.5

Definition:

Kshara are derivatives of plant drug ashes in the form of
solutions, powder or crystals, all of
which have the basic quality of being alkaline. The prepared drug substance is
called Kshara and because of its
peculiar qualities to causes Ksharana
of Mamsa & other Dhatus7 when it applied.

Due  to 
its  corrosive  nature 
(Ksharanata)  it 
is  known  as  Kshara 
(alkali).

Dalhana comments that the substance which produces Shodhana of Doshas, Dhatu, Maladi by its Ksharana action is called
Kshara. (Dalhana on Sushruta Sutra11/4)

Kshara is having many Rasas and
is dominated by Katu followed by Lavana as Anurasa.6

Modern View:

The term ‘Alkali’ is devoted to the ‘Kshara Vargiya dravyas’ in modern. The word
‘Alkali’ is derived from Arabic ‘alqaliy’- ‘the
calcined ashes’, referring to the original source of alkaline substances. An adjective
of caustic is attached to the ‘Dahak
Dravyas’. When it apply on the
tissue it indirectly cauterizes the tissue, so it also known as potential
cauterizing agent.

Source:

Charaka has mentioned eighteen parts of herbal plants viz.
which can be used in medicinal
purpose and Kshara is one of them.

Types:

As per text
various classifications of Kshara are
available. All such classifications are based on some fundamental factors. As
given below:

·       
On the Basis of
Application

1.     Sushruta

                                          
i.           
Pratisaraniya (External Application)

                                        
ii.           
Paniya (Oral Administration)

2.     Charaka

                                          
i.           
Pratisaraniya (External Application)

                                        
ii.           
Paniya (Oral Administration)

3.     Vagbhata

                                          
i.           
Bahyaparimajana

                                        
ii.           
Antahaparimarjan

·       
On
the Basis of Potency-

The Pratisaraniya Kshara has been further
sub classified in to tri folds 11

1.     Mrudu- without adding any
additional drug and it is mild in action.

2.     Madhyama- contains avapa
dravya and moderate in action.

3.     Tikshan- contains avapa,
pratiavapa and some other dravya which make the Kshara more potentiate in
action.

This classification is
entirely based on the strength or concentration of Kshara for external use. This means to achieve cauterization in
different depths of the application site.

·       
On the Basis of Origin:

1.    
Vanaspatija

2.    
Pranija

3.    
Khanija

PROPERTIES:

All Ksharas are penetrating in nature, hot in potency, destroy worms,
vitiate Pitta and Asruk and help digestion of other substances, help in breakup of
hard masses, not good for heart,
puncture the tissues being pungent and salty in taste, not good to Shukra
Dhatu, Oja, hair and eyes.1

Table no  : Properties
of Kshara to different Acharyas:

Sr.No.

Properties

Ch. Sa2

Su. Sa3

As. Hr.4

Ra. Ta5

1.      

Tikshna

+

+

2.      

Ushna

+

+

3.      

Laghu

+

4.      

Ruksha

+

5.      

Kledatva

+

6.      

Pakta

+

7.      

Vidarana

+

8.      

Dahakarak

+

9.      

Dipana

+

10.                       
 

Chhedana

+

11.                       
 

Agnisadrishya

+

12.                       
 

NatiTikshna

+

+

13.                       
 

Natimridu

+

+

14.                       
 

Shukla

+

15.                       
 

Sita
(Swetavarna)

+

16.                       
 

Dahaka

+

17.                       
 

Slakshna

+

+

18.                       
 

Krimighna

+

19.                       
 

Picchila

+

+

20.                       
 

Pachaka

+

21.                       
 

Avisyandi

+

+

22.                       
 

Daraka

+

23.                       
 

Shivam

+

24.                       
 

Sukhanirvapya

+

25.                       
 

Shodhaka

+

26.                       
 

Shighrakari

+

27.                       
 

Shighragami

+

28.                       
 

Ropaka

+

29.                       
 

Shikhari

+

30.                       
 

Mutrala

+

31.                       
 

Natiruk

+

Ashtanga  Hridaya  added  two  additional 
properties  namely 
Shikhari  and Sukhanirvapya. The meaning of Shikhari is elevation. Sukhanirvapya gives the meaning of burning sensation after
application. Natiruk term of Kshara is given by the Vagbhatta, which means giving less pain,
while Sushruta used term Shivam which gives the same meaning.

Adequate Qualities of Kshara:

The qualities of Kshara are mentioned in Ayurvedic classics with details:

Sr. No.

Qualities

Authors

Sushruta6

Vagbhata7

1.    
 

Na-atiTikshna

+

+

2.    
 

Na-atimridu

+

+

3.    
 

Na-atishukla

+

+

4.    
 

Slakshna

+

+

5.    
 

Picchila

+

+

6.    
 

Avishyanda

+

+

7.    
 

Shighrakari

+

+

8.    
 

Shiva

+

9.    
 

Shikhari

+

10.                       
 

Sukha nirvapya

+

Inadequate Qualities of Kshara:

Kshara possess some bad qualities apart from good qualities
according to Ayurvedic literatures.
It is necessary to have a thorough knowledge of those bad qualities before
treating the patient with Kshara.

Table no  :
Disqualities of Kshara:

Sr. No

Disqualifies

Authors

Sushruta8

Vagbhata9

1.    
 

Atimridu

+

+

2.    
 

Atishweta

+

+

3.    
 

Atiushnata

+

+

4.    
 

 

 

 

5.    
 

AtiTikshnata

+

+

6.    
 

Atipicchila

+

+

7.    
 

Ativisarpita

+

+

8.    
 

Atisandrata

+

+

9.    
 

Apakvata

+

+

10.                       
 

Hina dravyata

+

+

11.                       
 

Ati tanu

+

 

·       
According to Physical
status:

Durbala

Balaka

Bheeru

Garbhini

 Vriddha

Rutumati

·       
According to Season

 

Shita
Kala

Ushna
Kala

Varsha

Durdina

 

According to Site

 

 

Dhamani

Snayu

Gala
Pradesha

Sandhi

Sevani

Marma

Vrishna

Nakhantara

Tarunasthi

Medhra

Sira

Nabhi
pradesha

Rasapanchaka of Kshara:

Rasa: Katu

Anirasa: LAvana

Guna: Tikta

Virya: Ushna

Vipaka: Katu

Sushruta has mentioned Kshara is
the most superior procedure among Shastra
and AnuShastra (sharp instruments
and substitute for sharp instruments respectively) because it is having superior qualities than latter one like Chhedana (Excision), Bhedana (incision and drainage), Lekhana (scraping) etc.

Selection of Drug:

Acc.to Ayurveda principles
a drug or therapy should not be only having pacifying effects on disease, but
also it must not create any adverse effect or complication.10

Origin :

Maize is the domesticated
variant of teosinte in the Tehuacan valley of mexico.15

A large corpus of data
indicates that maize was dispersed into lower central America by 7600 BP (5600
BC) and had moved into the inter-andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and
6000BP 5000-4000.16

Maize spread to the rest
of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates. It was
cultivated in spain just few decades after Columbus’s voyages and then spread
to Italy,west Africa and else where.17

Ditribution:

In the 16th
centuray,Portuguese imported maize to South-East Asia from America.The maize
was familiarized to Spain by Columbus and from Spain it extended to
France,Italy,and Turkey.During 17th centuray maize was introduced in
India.From India it went to China,Philippines and the East Indians.

Introduction:

The word Zea mays comes
from two languages. Zea comes from ancient Greek and is a generic name for
cerals and grains. Some scientists believe that zea stands for “sustaining
life”. Mays comes from the language Taino meaning “life giver”. The United
States is the largest producers of Zea mays, accounting nearly for 40% of the
total world’s production, followed by China and Brazil. In India the word maize
means ‘Sacred mother’ or ‘life giver’.

Detail description of this
drug has not been mentioned in Ayurvedic classic but the reference of this drug
can been seen in Nigandu Adarsh

Botanical name

Zea mays Linn

Family name

Poaceae

English name

Indian corn,Mays

Sanskrit name

Makkaya,Mahakaya

Tamil name

Makka cholam

Varga

Trunadi varga

 

Phyto – constituents:8

·       
2,4
– dihydroxy – 7 methoxy – 1,4 –bezoxazin – 3 – one

·       
Zea
mays contains Cytokininezeatine, Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Saponins, Vit C, E, K,
Minerals, Potassium, Starch, Sugar, Fat, Maysnic acid, Gluten, Dextrin,
Glucose, Cellulose, Silica, Phosphstes of lime& Magnesia.

·       
The
corn silk contains galactan,xylan,dextrose and other compounds.

·       
Style
Zea mays contains lumichrome, chrysoeriol, genistein, adenosine, guansine,
uracil, acetovanillone, vanillic acid, benzoxazoline, stigmastanone, 7
alpha-hydroxysitosterol, b-sitosterol.

Pharmacological uses:

·       
Diuresis
and Kaliuresis effect

·       
Hypo
glycemic agent

·       
Anti
fatigue activity

·       
Nephrotoxicity
reduction

·       
Ani-oxidant

·       
Anti-inflammatory
activity

·       
Anti
–depressant activity

·       
Anti
–hyperlipidemic effects

·       
Anti-diabetic
effects

·       
Neuroprotective
effects.

Therapeutic uses:

·       
Corn
silk is utilized as a medicine in renal problems. It also helps in
genito-urinary complaints.

·       
It
minimizes edema, gout, cystitis and rheumatism due to its anti inflammatory
effect.

·       
Corn
silk lowers LDL Cholesterol and guards against cardiac diseases,diabetis,and
hypertension.

·       
Corn
silk reduces blood clotting time.

·       
It
is a favorite treatment for the warts and corns.

·       
Corn
silk extracts provides a smooth texture and helps in skin maintenance .

·       
Corn
silk placed within a cradle,hung over a mirror for protection and pasted on the
door with a belief that it produces good luck.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Su. Su. 11/40

2 Ch.Su 27/366

3 Su.Su.11/16

4 Su 24

5 14/62,63

6 Su.su 11/16

7 A.Hr.Su 30/2

8 Su. Su. 11/17

9 A. S. Su.36/6

10 Ch.Ni8/23

x

Hi!
I'm Kara!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out