ETHNO members of plants groups used medicinally by aboriginals.

ETHNO MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF SOME
PTRRIDOPHYTES OF GUJARAT REGION.

Dr.Kalpesh J. Bhatt

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Biology Department

Pramukh Swami Science
&

H.D.Patel Arts
College, Kadi. (N.G.) 382715

[email protected]

 

Abstract:-

Pteridophytes
(ferns and fern allies) by virtue of their possessing great variety and
fascinating foliage have drawn the attention and admiration of horticulturists
and plant lovers for centuries. They are represented by about 305 genera,
comprising more than 10,000 species all over the world, about 191 genera and
more than 1000 species are reported from India medicinal value of pteridophytes
is known to man for more than 2000 years. In the present article and attempt
has been made to compile the Pharmacological, clinical and medicinal use of
some common pteridophytes available in Gujarat. This group of plant has least
been exploited for the medicinal purpose, hence this article may be useful for
further exploration of and fern allies found
in this area. In the
scientific arena, ethnomedical studies are generally characterized by a strong
anthropological approach, beginning of the 20th century the field of ethno
botany. Pteridophytic flora is the extinct members of plants groups used
medicinally by aboriginals. These plants have been used as such for various
purposes as fodder, vegetable & medicinal purpose.

 

Introduction:

Plants have been used as a source of food
medicine and many other necessities of life since time immemorial. Fern and
fern allies have always been in the center stage of attraction to botanists,
horticulturists and nature lovers since ancient times.

The knowledge about the use of medicinal
plant has been accrued through centuries and such plants are still valued even
today, although synthesis, antibiotics, etc. have attained greater prominence
in modern medicine. It is, however, a fact that these synthetics and
antibiotics although they often show miraculous and often instantaneous result,
prove harmful in the long run and that is why many synthetics and antibiotics
have now gone out of use or suggested to be used under medical supervision. In
the case of most medicinal plants, however, no such cumulative derogatory
effect has been recorded and many of the medicines obtained from plants are
widely used.

Human beings have been
utilizing plants for food, fiber and drugs apart from their well-being since
time immemorial. In the modern technocratic world, the traditional system of
medicine plays an important role in health care of urban, rural and tribal
people for all types of ailments. As herbal use becomes more common throughout
the world, ethno botanical investigations can provide insight into other
medical systems that differ from the biomedical model 

The
Traditional India System of medicine can be broadly classified into the
empirical of folk medicines, which are village-based, region-specified,
indigenous herb-based, local resource based and in many cases,
community-specific. The other system called Shastriya stream, which includes the
Ayurveda, Siddha and Unnani systems of medicine. It is also said to be
documented in thousands of regional manuscripts. Presently the Indian System of
Medicine user over 1,100 medicinal plant and most of them are collected from
the wild habitat, of which over more than five dozen species are said to be in
great demand. The tribes of various regions of India are involved in the
collection and trades of the herbs.

 Ethno medicinal value of plant pteridophytes
is known to man for more than 2000 years. Theophrastus (327-287 B.C.) And
Discords (100A.D.) have referred to medicinal attributes of certain ferns.
Sushruta and Charka (100A.D.) mentioned ethno medicinal use of Marsilea
minuta Linn. And Adiantum capillusveneris Linn.
In their Sanhitas.

Though recent
ethanobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies have reported the
medicinal and pharmaceutical value of many species of pteridophytes, still some
species of pteridophyes, used by tribal’s 
are yet to be evaluated for their pharmaceutical value and to isolate
the active principal.

In the
present article an attempt has been made to compile the information on various ethno
medicinal uses of five commonly available pteridophytes of Gujarat.

 

 

Adiantum
capillus-veneris Linn.

There plants are found in sandy alluvial soil
deposited in rock-crevices near waterfalls or under the moist and shady places
on the humus rich soil. Rhizome slender, creeping to sub-erect, 10-30 cm long
Bering founds, roots are narrow lanceolate scales. Fronds arebipinnate, stipe slender,
shining black. Sporangia lepto sporangiate with tetrahedral, triangular, smooth
walled spores.

The leaves extract is used for fever, cough
and bronchial disorders. It is also used as a stimulant, purgative, demulcent,
emollient, tonic and hair tonic. It has anti-cancerous, hypoglycemic,
aphrodisiac, antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral properties.

Dryopteris 
cochleata  (Don)C.Chr.

Rhizomes woody, stout, horizontal or
ascending thickly covered with leaf bases and rown scales. A tufted large fern
with generally dimorphic fronds. Barren fronds’ pinnate or sub  pinnate and approximately a meter in leghth; pinnai
12-18 pairs, closed lowest often 30 cm × 8 cm. oblong, lanceolate pinnules
lobed or not, denticulate or serrate, and glabrous. Fertile fronds narrowly
lanceolate and smaller than vegetative fronds bipinnate with pinnules much
contracted thickly covered with sori.

The young leaves are used as vegetable, in
eczema and as anthelmintic. Fronds (leaves) of Dryopteris cochleata were
evaluated for its antibacterial potential and phytochemical contents in various
solvent extracts in increasing polarity towards pathogenic bacterial species.

Marsilea
minuta Linn.

Plant aquatic/amphibious, rhizome, a runner
with distinction of nodes and internodes. From the nodes arise roots, leaves
and sporocarps. Leaf with large petiole terminating into four leaflet. Leaflets
obovate with smooth or crenate margins; sporocarp stalked bean shaped rounded.

Plants are used in cough, spastic condition
of leg muscles, etc.  And the also as
sedative and for insomnia. Garasia and Bheels cook the leaves as vegetable. The
decoction of leaves along with ginger is used to cure cough and bronchitis in
many villages of Gujarat.

Ophioglossom
nudicaule Linn.

Plants small, 2.9- 6.2cm tall, rhizomes
globose, rarely thick cylindrical giving rise to ibrous roots. Aerial parts
with small common stalks, sporophyll ovate or elliptical, lanceolate, pex
acute, or obtuse, base cordate, alternate or truncate, texture fleshy. Fertile
stalk 2.2-4.2 cm  long, spike small 3-14
mm in length.

It is used as a cooling agent and in the
treatment of inflammations and wounds. Fronds used as a tonic and styptic as
well as in contusions and haemorrages

Selagenella Sp.

Seventy one species of sellaginella grow in
the tropical and sub-tropical forest. It is an herbaceous perennial or annual
and grow prostrate. It is a radial and grows erect, rarely scan dent and
sub-erect. It is caules cent with erect stems arising from creeping rhizomes.
They range in size from a few centimeters to a few meters in length and are
capable of growing through and over the bushes. It grows erect and is several
feet tall. It is dried and curls like ball during dry season and again expands
during favorable season or no wetting with water. The difference between the
main axis and the branches become evident in later formed parts of the plants
where the main axis grows vigorously and the branches remain small. Eames
shouted and other hold that branching in dorsi-ventral species of sellaginella
is dichotomous or pseudomonopodial. It’s leaves micriphyllous. Each leaf is
traversed by a single unbranched midrib. The leaves are sessile and may be
ovate, linear, lance late or cord ate. The strobilus is the sporangia bearing
region of the sporophyte. The sporangia arise in the axis of leaves called the
sporophylls. The strobilus is spike or the cone type and bisporangiate.

The genus has no economics importance except
that some species are grow as ornamental due to the lush green foliage that in
some species gives beautiful tints such as bronze or blue. It yields a medicine
that has some curative for the liver diseases.

Conclusion :

Pteridophytes, the ferns and fern allies as
they are known for great medicinal values.  Researchers have given stress on the need of
conservation of the various pteridophytes. It is concluded that ethno medicinal
importance of these plants and their active constituents would be helpful in
treating various kinds of diseases. Crude extracts and their interactions with
different active fractional of the plants are needed to explore the exact
mechanism of the interaction among the active phyto-constituents. Similarly,
the efficacy of crude extracts or polyherbal preparation needs to be studied in
vitro to assess their therapeutic utility.

 

References:

1.     
Parihar
p. daswani and Bohra, A toxic effect of plant part extracts of marsilea minuta
linn. On the growth of Staphylococcus aureus,Indian fern J,2003,20,48-50.

2.     
Parihar
p. daswani and Bohra,2004a, Antiselmonellae activity of three species of
adiantrum,Indian ferm J,2004,21, 136-139.

3.     
Nayar B
K , Medicinal ferm of India,ETHNO MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF SOME
PTRRIDOPHYTES OF GUJARAT REGION.Dr.Kalpesh J. BhattBiology DepartmentPramukh Swami Science
.D.Patel Arts
College, Kadi. (N.G.) [email protected] Abstract:-Pteridophytes
(ferns and fern allies) by virtue of their possessing great variety and
fascinating foliage have drawn the attention and admiration of horticulturists
and plant lovers for centuries. They are represented by about 305 genera,
comprising more than 10,000 species all over the world, about 191 genera and
more than 1000 species are reported from India medicinal value of pteridophytes
is known to man for more than 2000 years. In the present article and attempt
has been made to compile the Pharmacological, clinical and medicinal use of
some common pteridophytes available in Gujarat. This group of plant has least
been exploited for the medicinal purpose, hence this article may be useful for
further exploration of and fern allies found
in this area. In the
scientific arena, ethnomedical studies are generally characterized by a strong
anthropological approach, beginning of the 20th century the field of ethno
botany. Pteridophytic flora is the extinct members of plants groups used
medicinally by aboriginals. These plants have been used as such for various
purposes as fodder, vegetable & medicinal purpose. Introduction:Plants have been used as a source of food
medicine and many other necessities of life since time immemorial. Fern and
fern allies have always been in the center stage of attraction to botanists,
horticulturists and nature lovers since ancient times.The knowledge about the use of medicinal
plant has been accrued through centuries and such plants are still valued even
today, although synthesis, antibiotics, etc. have attained greater prominence
in modern medicine. It is, however, a fact that these synthetics and
antibiotics although they often show miraculous and often instantaneous result,
prove harmful in the long run and that is why many synthetics and antibiotics
have now gone out of use or suggested to be used under medical supervision. In
the case of most medicinal plants, however, no such cumulative derogatory
effect has been recorded and many of the medicines obtained from plants are
widely used. Human beings have been
utilizing plants for food, fiber and drugs apart from their well-being since
time immemorial. In the modern technocratic world, the traditional system of
medicine plays an important role in health care of urban, rural and tribal
people for all types of ailments. As herbal use becomes more common throughout
the world, ethno botanical investigations can provide insight into other
medical systems that differ from the biomedical model The
Traditional India System of medicine can be broadly classified into the
empirical of folk medicines, which are village-based, region-specified,
indigenous herb-based, local resource based and in many cases,
community-specific. The other system called Shastriya stream, which includes the
Ayurveda, Siddha and Unnani systems of medicine. It is also said to be
documented in thousands of regional manuscripts. Presently the Indian System of
Medicine user over 1,100 medicinal plant and most of them are collected from
the wild habitat, of which over more than five dozen species are said to be in
great demand. The tribes of various regions of India are involved in the
collection and trades of the herbs. Ethno medicinal value of plant pteridophytes
is known to man for more than 2000 years. Theophrastus (327-287 B.C.) And
Discords (100A.D.) have referred to medicinal attributes of certain ferns.
Sushruta and Charka (100A.D.) mentioned ethno medicinal use of Marsilea
minuta Linn. And Adiantum capillusveneris Linn.
In their Sanhitas.Though recent
ethanobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies have reported the
medicinal and pharmaceutical value of many species of pteridophytes, still some
species of pteridophyes, used by tribal’s 
are yet to be evaluated for their pharmaceutical value and to isolate
the active principal.In the
present article an attempt has been made to compile the information on various ethno
medicinal uses of five commonly available pteridophytes of Gujarat.  Adiantum
capillus-veneris Linn.There plants are found in sandy alluvial soil
deposited in rock-crevices near waterfalls or under the moist and shady places
on the humus rich soil. Rhizome slender, creeping to sub-erect, 10-30 cm long
Bering founds, roots are narrow lanceolate scales. Fronds arebipinnate, stipe slender,
shining black. Sporangia lepto sporangiate with tetrahedral, triangular, smooth
walled spores.The leaves extract is used for fever, cough
and bronchial disorders. It is also used as a stimulant, purgative, demulcent,
emollient, tonic and hair tonic. It has anti-cancerous, hypoglycemic,
aphrodisiac, antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral properties.Dryopteris 
cochleata  (Don)C.Chr.Rhizomes woody, stout, horizontal or
ascending thickly covered with leaf bases and rown scales. A tufted large fern
with generally dimorphic fronds. Barren fronds’ pinnate or sub  pinnate and approximately a meter in leghth; pinnai
12-18 pairs, closed lowest often 30 cm × 8 cm. oblong, lanceolate pinnules
lobed or not, denticulate or serrate, and glabrous. Fertile fronds narrowly
lanceolate and smaller than vegetative fronds bipinnate with pinnules much
contracted thickly covered with sori.The young leaves are used as vegetable, in
eczema and as anthelmintic. Fronds (leaves) of Dryopteris cochleata were
evaluated for its antibacterial potential and phytochemical contents in various
solvent extracts in increasing polarity towards pathogenic bacterial species. Marsilea
minuta Linn.Plant aquatic/amphibious, rhizome, a runner
with distinction of nodes and internodes. From the nodes arise roots, leaves
and sporocarps. Leaf with large petiole terminating into four leaflet. Leaflets
obovate with smooth or crenate margins; sporocarp stalked bean shaped rounded.Plants are used in cough, spastic condition
of leg muscles, etc.  And the also as
sedative and for insomnia. Garasia and Bheels cook the leaves as vegetable. The
decoction of leaves along with ginger is used to cure cough and bronchitis in
many villages of Gujarat.Ophioglossom
nudicaule Linn. Plants small, 2.9- 6.2cm tall, rhizomes
globose, rarely thick cylindrical giving rise to ibrous roots. Aerial parts
with small common stalks, sporophyll ovate or elliptical, lanceolate, pex
acute, or obtuse, base cordate, alternate or truncate, texture fleshy. Fertile
stalk 2.2-4.2 cm  long, spike small 3-14
mm in length.It is used as a cooling agent and in the
treatment of inflammations and wounds. Fronds used as a tonic and styptic as
well as in contusions and haemorrages Selagenella Sp.Seventy one species of sellaginella grow in
the tropical and sub-tropical forest. It is an herbaceous perennial or annual
and grow prostrate. It is a radial and grows erect, rarely scan dent and
sub-erect. It is caules cent with erect stems arising from creeping rhizomes.
They range in size from a few centimeters to a few meters in length and are
capable of growing through and over the bushes. It grows erect and is several
feet tall. It is dried and curls like ball during dry season and again expands
during favorable season or no wetting with water. The difference between the
main axis and the branches become evident in later formed parts of the plants
where the main axis grows vigorously and the branches remain small. Eames
shouted and other hold that branching in dorsi-ventral species of sellaginella
is dichotomous or pseudomonopodial. It’s leaves micriphyllous. Each leaf is
traversed by a single unbranched midrib. The leaves are sessile and may be
ovate, linear, lance late or cord ate. The strobilus is the sporangia bearing
region of the sporophyte. The sporangia arise in the axis of leaves called the
sporophylls. The strobilus is spike or the cone type and bisporangiate.The genus has no economics importance except
that some species are grow as ornamental due to the lush green foliage that in
some species gives beautiful tints such as bronze or blue. It yields a medicine
that has some curative for the liver diseases.Conclusion :Pteridophytes, the ferns and fern allies as
they are known for great medicinal values.  Researchers have given stress on the need of
conservation of the various pteridophytes. It is concluded that ethno medicinal
importance of these plants and their active constituents would be helpful in
treating various kinds of diseases. Crude extracts and their interactions with
different active fractional of the plants are needed to explore the exact
mechanism of the interaction among the active phyto-constituents. Similarly,
the efficacy of crude extracts or polyherbal preparation needs to be studied in
vitro to assess their therapeutic utility. References:1.     
Parihar
p. daswani and Bohra, A toxic effect of plant part extracts of marsilea minuta
linn. On the growth of Staphylococcus aureus,Indian fern J,2003,20,48-50.2.     
Parihar
p. daswani and Bohra,2004a, Antiselmonellae activity of three species of
adiantrum,Indian ferm J,2004,21, 136-139.3.     
Nayar B
K , Medicinal ferm of India, Bull Net Bot Garden, 1958,29,1-36.4.     
Dixit R
D and Vohra JN, A Dictionary of the pteridophytes of India, Botanical survey of
India, Howrah, 1984.

5.     
Kausik
P and Dhiman A K, Comman medicinal pteridophytes, Indian fern J,1995,12(1-2),139-145.Bull Net Bot Garden, 1958,29,1-36.

4.     
Dixit R
D and Vohra JN, A Dictionary of the pteridophytes of India, Botanical survey of
India, Howrah, 1984.

5.     
Kausik
P and Dhiman A K, Comman medicinal pteridophytes, Indian fern J,1995,12(1-2),139-145.

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