ila of Forces · South had initial advantage, could

ila
Ginsburg

Unit
5B notes

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

Chapter
20: Grinding for War: The North and the South

The
Menace of Secession

·        
Question
of national debt, who would assume it when the south split

·        
Europe
could gloat over the fact that the “Union” was disbanding

·        
Could
make America vulnerable to British attacks because of the no more united front

South
Carolina Assails Fort Sumter

·        
Most
southern federal forts were taken by the Confederacy

·        
Fort
Sumter: in Charleston, SC, only lasted until April 1861, not enough resources
but Lincoln could not send men in the threat of being attacked

·        
Told
the South Carolinians that he would send resources to the fort, not
reinforcement, Union Navy was sent to this fort

·        
April
2nd 1861—South Carolina shelled Fort Sumter, loss of the fort but
victory for the Union, justified the counterattack

·        
April
15th—75,000 men called to help, April 19th and 27th would
block the ports in the South

·        
Arkansas,
Virginia, Tennessee joined the Confederacy

Brothers’
Blood and Border Blood

·        
Border
states: Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia had white
population greater than half the amount that was in the Confederacy

·        
Cumberland
and Tennessee: helped to produce resources in Dixie

·        
Lincoln
sent armed men down to these border states with means to legally persuade

·        
Lincoln
had no choice but to say that the Union wasn’t fighting to free the slaves, he
needed the aid of Kentucky and other states

·        
War
was initially for saving the Union

·        
Most
of the Indian Confederacy went with the Confederates, Cherokees even had slaves

·        
Billy
Yank and Johnny Reb: brothers that split sides, one was a general in the Union
army and the other fought for the confederacy as a general

The
Balance of Forces

·        
South
had initial advantage, could fight on their own soil

·        
South
had the famous generals: General Robert E. Lee, Thomsa J. Stonewall

·        
Robert
E. Lee: offered by Lincoln to fight for Union army, but when Virginia seceded,
he left with it it, honorable, loyal to his state

·        
South
had more experienced boys and men, cavalry too

·        
South
was able to attain weapons, but had less supplies

·        
South
lost its railroads to the northern attacks on it, which resulted in loss of
supplies

·        
North
had the sea, could cut off the southern ports

·        
North
had a lot more people, meaning more men,

·        
 also had immigrants from Europe

·        
However,
northern troops were not trained for battle like the south was

·        
Ulysses
S. Grant: Union general that Lincoln finally found, dedicated and determined to
win the war

Dethroning
King Cotton

·        
South
thought it would get foreign assistance, but didn’t

·        
Working
class in Britain and some in France supported the Union cause, while Europe’s
high class supported the Confederacy

·        
Uncle
Tom’s Cabin influenced British subjects, British government decided not to
attack Union

·        
However,
British textile mills got their cotton from the South (75% of cotton in Britain
came from the South)

·        
Surplus
may have been the cause of King Cotton not “coming in clutch”

·        
Wage
slaves in Britain

·        
“cotton
famine”

·        
Union
sent cotton to Britain

·        
The
war industries starting to show, helped with unemployment

·        
King
Wheat and King Corn became stronger than King Cotton

·        
British
needed the Union’s cotton and wheat

·        
British
could not attack Union blockade of ports in the south for cotton because they
would have lost grain from Union

Decisiveness
of Diplomacy

·        
Trent
Affair: 1861—Union ship in Cuba stopped the Trent,
a British steamer and seized two Confederate diplomats that were on their
way to Europe

·        
British
subjects were mad, Britain was prepared to wage war, but Lincoln saved this
from happening and allowed the diplomats to go free

·        
The
Alabama and other warships being
built for the Confederacy in Britain

·        
The
warship, Alabama, went to Portugal in
1862 and took weapons and British forces, never docked in a Confederate port,
ended up seizing ships, was challenged by a Union cruiser off the coast of
France and was no match, found it demise in 1864

·        
1863—Britain
seized a ship being built for the Confederacy, violated its laws

·        
Merchant
ships under attack by British-built warships

Foreign
Flare-ups

·        
Laird
rams—2 Confederate ships being built in the John Laird and Sons shipyard in
Britain, made with iron rams and powerful guns, supposed to be lethal to the
Union ships

·        
Minister
Adams warned against the British using these

·        
1871—Britain
paid American Confederacy 15.5 million dollars for the damages caused by
wartime attackers of merchant ships

·        
Irish
Americans hated England, resulted in attacks on Canada (1866 and 1870)

·        
1867—Dominion
of Canada was formed by the British government

·        
Napoleon
III invaded Mexico City in 1863, had archduke Maximilian rule over Mexico

·        
This
invasion and rule violated the Monroe Doctrine

President
Davis Versus President Lincoln

·        
Confederacy
had its own Constitution adapted from the original one, however, it did not
protect from secession of its states later in the “game”

·        
President
Jefferson Davis: all about legal system, stubborn, and cold, had lots of
conflict with Congress, knew how to speak to the people, however wasn’t very
popular, was okay with not having the entire support of the people, struggled
with nervous disorders, was dedicated to the southern cause

·        
Lincoln:
strategic, firm on his decisions, knew how to understand the people’s opinion,
did not fight back against other politicians’ actions against him, he had
self-control and discipline

Limitations
on Wartime Liberties

·        
Increased
size of military

·        
Put
up a blockade

·        
Told
Sec of Treasury to direct 2 million dollars to two people for military uses

·        
Put
habeas corpus on hold

·        
Voting
in border states was closely monitored

·        
Looked
for editorials that supported the other side

·        
Jefferson
Davis did not “violate” power like Lincoln

Volunteers
and Draftees: North and South

·        
Volunteers
initially in the North, each state had a certain number it needed to provide,

·        
1863—legislation
passed for a draft

·        
Riots
because of this draft

·        
“bounty
brokers and substitute brokers”: people who looked for people to enlist and
make money off of that

·        
South
had less people to volunteer and enlist

·        
Rich
man in the North could hire a substitute

The
Economic Stresses of War

·        
Taxes
increased on tobacco and alcohol

·        
Morrill
Tariff Act: increased taxes to 10%

·        
Treasury
and greenbacks

·        
1863:
national banking system, sold government bonds

·        
Depreciation
of money: rag money

·        
Bonds
sold in the South, added up to 400 million dollars

·        
Confederacy
increased taxes

·        
Blue
backed paper money in Confederate states

·        
Runaway
inflation

North’s
Economic Boom

·        
Northern
manufacturers and agents took the dishonest route and focused on money,  put out resources that were poorly made or
not of good quality

·        
Growth
of the petroleum industry

·        
Women
were spies in the war: Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell

·        
Nurses
in the army: Clara Barton and Dorothea Dix

A
Crushed Cotton Kingdom

·        
12%
of national wealth by 1870, decreased due to the war

·        
Transportation
took a dive, rails were taken from less-used lines to help fix the most-used
ones

·        
Resources
used to the fullest

·        
Women
were a major part of the uplifting of spirits in the war

·        
North’s
capital system defeated the oligarchy of the South to crumble

Chapter
21: Furnace

Bull
Run ends the “Ninety-Day War”

·        
Militiamen
were sent by Lincoln to attack Bull Run

·        
Richmond
overtaking would look good, without having to completely destroy southern
economy

·        
Northerners
realized that the war would not be a “one and done”

Tardy
George McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign

·        
General
McClellan became commanding officer of the Potomac army in 1861, perfectionist
that wanted a perfect army

·        
Lincoln
told McClellan to go forward to try and capture Richmond, he was taking too
long

·        
Peninsula
Campaign: McClellan tried capturing Richmond, was unsuccessful

The
War at Sea

·        
Blockade
strategy

·        
At
first Britain was wary, but then realized that it had used this strategy
throughout history

·        
Union
Navy: would seize British ships carrying supplies to the southern ports

·        
1862:
south rebuilt wooden warship , The Merrimack, and put on iron rails

·        
The
northern warship, the Monitor, overtook the Merrimack and won

The
Pivotal Point: Antietam

·        
Robert
E. Lee defeated McClellan at Richmond

·        
He
went into Maryland and was met by union forces at Antietam Creek

·        
Union
soldiers found Robert E. Lee’s battle plans

·        
Sept
17th, 1862 McClellan was able to stop Lee at Antietam Creel, one of
the bloodiest battles

·        
The
victory at Antietam gave Lincoln the momentum to deliver the Emancipation
Proclamation

·        
Emancipation
Proclamation: freed all the slaves in the northern and southern states, but not
in the border states (in order to prevent the border states from joining the
Confederacy)

A
Proclamation without Emancipation

·        
Lincoln
freed the slaves he technically couldn’t (those in the south) and he also did
not free the states he could (border states where he had legal authority)

·        
Moral
cause was heightened

·        
This
meant no peace negotiation

Black’s
Battle Bondage

·        
Initially,
there were no black people fighting in the war, but as men were lost in battle,
the black men were needed

·        
10%
of enlisted soldiers were black

·        
Confederacy
waited until 1 month before the war was over to allow black men to fight for
the confederacy

·        
Slaves
tried undermining slavery in the south by revolting against the masters

Lee’s
Last Lunge at Gettysburg

·        
General
McClellan replaced with General A.E Burnsides

·        
His
frontal attack on the Confederacy failed and more than 10,000 union soldiers
were killed/wounded, was removed from his commanding position

·        
Next
was Joseph Hooker

·        
Stonewall
Jackson was killed by his own soldiers on accident

·        
George
G. Meade came after Hooker and fought at Gettysburg

·        
Union
was victorious, foreshadowed their final victory

·        
Lincoln’s
Gettysburg Address

The
War in the West

·        
Ulysses
S. Grant was the final commander of the army

·        
Union
won at Vicksburg

·        
July
4th, 1863: Vicksburg, Mississippi.. the city surrendered to the
Union army

·        
This
ended any chances of the south getting foreign intervention

Sherman
Scorches Georgia

·        
Grant
won at Chattanooga

·        
Grant
became General in Chief

·        
General
Sherman burned all of Atlanta (destroyed railroads and buildings)

·        
Sherman
captured Savannah next

The
Politics of War

·        
Northern
democrats were very much so against the war

·        
War
democrats vs. peace democrats

·        
Copperheads:
opposed the Union itself, the war and mandatory draft, and the emancipation
proclamation

The
Election of 1864

·        
Republicans
chose sides with war democrats, new that the Confederacy would most likely lose

·        
Andrew
Johnson ran as president against Lincoln

·        
General
McClellan was nominated as the presidential candidate for the copperheads

Grant
Outlasts Lee

·        
Grant
to lead the attack on Richmond

·        
Wilderness
campaign: Grant fought Lee in the wilderness of Virginia

·        
June
3rd 1864: frontal assault

·        
Confederacy
wanted peace agreement, but Lincoln was steadfast on Unity and the freedom of
slaves

·        
Appomattox:
Virginia, Union army allowed the Confederate army to surrender

The
Martyrdom of Lincoln

x

Hi!
I'm Kara!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out