In argumentation. Introduction Many scholars are interested in effects

 In the sociological
literature for social mobility, I assume that inequality that is lasting and
passing down to generations, intergenerational relations as a mechanism to
explain lasting inequality is significant in analyzing how inequalities in
social realm can be possible, how social stratification among social groups in
terms of their class, ethnicity, race, age and gender can pass down to
generations and make them have been alive for years. Besides the others
dynamics behind social inequality like contributions of institutions like laws,
economy, policy, education and so forth, intergenerational mobility have
crucially influence on lasting inequality. In my paper, I argue that accessing
education is not equal for all social groups and secondly education itself make
this inequality maintain and intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic
standing which means social position of a family pas down to their children is one
of the main cause of continued inequality for education, so I will try to
examine high level education access from different social groups in terms of
class and compare and contrast France, Germany and USA by looking at the
children of different social groups in accessing education, I will connect
intergenerational mobility effects on inequality among families from different
class positions. To make my argument strong, I will comprise my data from
sociological literature and use theories from old sociologists to base upon them
to my argumentation. Introduction Many scholars are interested in effects of
families on their children and they have done so much researches about family
influence on behavior, status and social positions of individuals who are rose
up by their parents. However, this kind of perspective on generation
reproduction neglects elder generation effects and other mechanisms had an impact
on family reproduction and children coming from this families for micro
perspective on individuals. Besides just focusing on nuclear families, individuals,
parent-child relationships on reproduction of generations and effects of micro-institutions
on children, their social position and status on society, multigenerational
researches suggests that so many generations are associated with each other, so
we need to go beyond to study only families but also older generation and next
generation to correlate their relations on individuals. Therefore, it may be
inadequate to focus on one generation to see the next generation’s social
mobility, indeed intergenerational mobility of generations and their social
positions require to study grandparent effects and transmission from
grandparent to parent and parent to children. This approach on social mobility
establishes bridges for grandparent and grandchildren in terms of transmission
of grandparent’s position to grandchildren (Mare, 2011). According to three
generational social mobility researches, grandchildren’s social positions are
directly affected by grandparents’ social positions except for parent effects
on their offspring. Indeed, social mobility patterns for two generations such
as parent-child pair can have same patterns for three generational social class
mobility and grandparent’s social class can be transmitted to next two
generation, to their grandchildren and for Hertel and Samberg (2013), grandparent’s
resources and their social class position can be impact on their grandchildren
as mechanisms for three generational social mobility. Firstly, grandparent’s
resources which can have social, cultural and economic dimensions, may have an
impact on grandchildren’s social class and educational achievement,
independently from mediation of parents. For instance, inheritance from
grandparents can be directly transferred to grandchildren and it could be
economic capital for high level education like getting degree from private colleges
and by this way economic capital of grandparents can be both resource for economic
and cultural capital to grandchildren. Moreover, cultural capital as second
resource of grandparents can have an influence on grandchildren’s future
decisions, skills, knowledge and academic positions. That is why grandparental
effect on children indicates that three generational social mobility can be
possible and grandparents also have an impact on transmission of resources to
the children apart from nuclear family (Hertel and Samberg 2013). Secondly,
class position of grandparents can be reference frame to understand
intergenerational social mobility. From multigenerational class mobility
approach, grandparental effect on class position can be significant and
reference frame for both parent and grandchildren. Class that determines social
positions in public place might be transferred to generations from older
generations. Social and cultural reproduction theory of Bourdieu asserts that societies
should be studied as systems of cultural and economic productions since they
can exist by producing cultural and economic capitals and the next generations
can be able to survive with this produced symbolic, social, economic and
cultural capitals (Nash, 1990). Bourdieu uses the term habitus to analyze inequality and cultural power upon lower classes
and he says that habitus as a property
of social groups or institutions can help to shape this group’s present and the
future practices or moves which means that is way or tendency of thinking and
acting. Our habitus makes us to think
and move and habitus can be
understood as a tool to explain implicit rules dictating our behaviors,
decisions, practices that are structured by socially. Social classes as social
fact structures habitus, from this
perspective, for instance, lower class adults might be tend to get working
class jobs whereas middle-upper class kids tend to choose private and/or high
level universities (Maton, 2008). Apart from habitus, he explains different forms of capitals helped to
understand social stratification and inequality between different social
classes such as economic and cultural capital more importantly. Forms of
capitals differ in different social classes, economic capital can obviously
differ that split the classes because of unequal income distribution, but
cultural capital like being familiar with particular, not all, kind of
literature as reader, hanging out certain places, taking coffee with a
Dostoyevski book and so on shows your cultural capital and he claims that cultural
capital can vary from social class to another one. For future decisions,
academic life, business environment and all cultural practices that are shaped
by joint of habitus and cultural capital
will put individuals/groups/institutions in a certain position and social
structure of society can be established with reproduction of difference. Bourdieu’s
perspective of cultural theory of power and social reproduction are obviously
associated with intergenerational social mobility of inequality since this
approach is able to explain cultural and economic transmission as a significant
process for intergenerational family reproduction (Nash, 1990). I assume that
inequality of income characterizing social classes in terms of economic
dimension and educational attainment to high level universities or colleges are
associated with each other and intergenerational transmission of sources from
older generations to next generation make this inequality alive. Economic and
cultural resources of the families including grandparental effects could be
passed down to grandchildren and educational attainment can differ across
different social classes. First of all, accessing higher education can differ
in diversified class positions transmitted grandchildren from grandparent in
multigenerational way. Economic-oriented social classes based on income from
grandparents to parents and parents to children have an important reason why
accessing higher education is not equal for every single individual. According
to Great Gatsby Curve using variety of tools to measure intergenerational
mobility and income inequality from cross-nationally comparable data, financial
resources play significant role in accessing education and there is strong
relation between income inequality and intergenerational mobility. That is to
say, inequality from parents can exist and pass down to next generation
according to some scholars as well as they shows that parental education have
impact on their offspring’s future earnings ( Jerrim and Macmillan, 2014). Further,
individuals get income from their assets like capitals, skills and networks
from family. Forms of capital that I mentioned before as a remarkable dynamic
passing down to generations and reproduced are fact for earning or getting a
job in a certain position like education of parents as well as grandparents,
their social capital referred to strong networks or affiliation between some individuals,
institutions and groups as symbolic capital affect children’s future position
in academy, business environment (Perez-Arce, Amaral, Huang and Price). For
instance, admission to one of the Ivy League Universities  have multigenerational effects since a student
from a family whose parents did not get degree from one of these universities
but his/her  grandfather attended one of
them before, has high level of getting admission to be a part of these Ivy
League colleges (Mare, 2011).  In order to cover all approaches related with
intergenerational mobility, resource transmission from generations to following
generations, inequality and finally education attainment of the children, I
assert that accessing the high level education is not equal for children from
different socioeconomic backgrounds. This is because, transmitted resources
that can be income transmission or wealth such as inheritance from grandparents
or parents to children, cultural capital making children have certain kind of
skills, knowledge regarding their cultural capital level and class surely and
social capital included networks, social ties between groups, individuals and
institutions making children accessing education more easily because of getting
to know by social connections, matter parents and grandparents, indeed  those children born from relatively wealthier
or poorer families do not have same opportunity to achieve same positions with
different children from different social classes. This linkages ensure to
correlate transmission of resources containing income and even skills and
inequality of opportunity with intergenerational class mobility (Perez-Arce,
Amaral, Huang and Price, 2016). Children’s occupational skills, educational
level, decisions about academic life, status and even neighborhood could be
transmitted from family, parents or in three generational approach including
grandparents, all are might have been determined already independently from
children because of effects of structural effects of families’ socioeconomic
position in society since tendencies for actions for further life are
structured from structures like family and so, inequality of opportunity, in
accessing high level education, can pass down to next generations and intergenerational
class mobility can be a mechanism for lasting inequality. That I why parents or
grandparents matter for children future life. Data and Method  I compromise my data from literature to see the
relation between intergenerational mobility and inequality in accessing
education. In order to provide this connection, I had covered 10 different
articles related with intergenerational social mobility, three generational social
class mobility, transmission of income, inequality of opportunity, income
inequality and education. Moreover, I have tried to make my argument stronger
by basing upon a theory from Bourdieu which is social and cultural reproduction.
This theory id extremely significant to relate my argumentation with
intergenerational class mobility and inequality for education. From
sociological literature for intergenerational relations in life course, I will
examine some related examples from cross-national data including income
transmission, micro-class mobility, inequality of opportunity for both two and
three generational perspective in order to analyze parental and grandparental
effects. Specifically, I will try to explain and analyze Germany for income/wealth/capital
transmission to next generation and differential opportunity for education and
whether or in what extend accessing education can differ for children from
different social classes in Germany. Further, I will compare this with USA by
following the same patterns.  Apart from data, I am doing secondary research
analysis to create my research paper which means that I will use articles written
before my paper. By this methodology, I planning to generate my research paper
with significant and related thoughts from sociological literature about
intergenerational social mobility and inequality in accessing education. Germany case on intergenerational
transmission of education  Some studies of multigenerational relations
and mobility on educational attainment in cross-national analysis indicate that
in some extend grandparents can play crucial role in transmission of resources
to children even though majority of studies claim that there is no net
grandparental effects on children for educational attainment or occupational decisions
and class mobility rather than transmission from parents. However, for Germany
case, besides Hertel and Groh-Samberg’s research on three generational social
mobility (2014), Andrea Ziefle shows empirical evidence for Germany on
grandparental effects for the further generations. She argues that grandparents
as members of extended family’ resources in indirectly way and caregiving, discipline
for children’s homework and other kinds of social support that could be done by
parents can follow the same patterns for grandparents who provide direct and
indirect cultural, economic, social resources for their grandchildren except
for just nuclear family. In the some extend that nuclear family or parents’
lack of sources for educational attainment or occupational aspirations,
grandparents can have a role in take on transmission of education advantage and
resources make this advantage possible (Ziefle, 2016). According to her study,
if current generation respondents means children from downwardly mobile parents
are succeeded in school rather than others from same level of parental
education, grandparents can have an impact on transmitted cultural resources
through parent and refers that children can get benefit or advantage from
family that has generated relatively rich academic environment. This study
shows downward educational mobility in both East and West Germany (Ziefle,
2016).         

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

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