Project organization to meet the customers need by reducing

Project
Management:

Project Management comprises of two subjects:

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·       
Project

·       
Management

Project is a unique endeavor which have a unique starting
and ending. Projects usually have following key things in them:

·       
Unique start and end

·       
Limited time and resources

·       
Unique circumstances

·       
Pre specified deliverables

While management is the art of getting things done
through other people. Functions of the management are follows:

·       
Planning

·       
Organizing

·       
Leading

·       
Performing

Now
in a broader way if we look at the definition of project management then “Project management is
the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project
activities to meet project requirements.” (PMBOK®, 1). Project management helps
organization to meet the customers need by reducing uncertainty and giving an
optimal solution in a specific time constraint. The basic purpose of project
management is giving scope and quality of project in given time and cost.

 

Project Life Cycle:

Project Life cycle
refers to a four step process followed by every project manager to complete the
requirements of a project in given time moving through the completion of the
project. It provides a framework for the managers to complete any type of
project. Every project has beginning, middle and an ending. These all combine
together to show a path from starting to the end of the project are referred as
“Project Life Cycle”.

Following are the four
phases of project life cycle:

1.     Initiation

2.     Development(planning)

3.     Implementation(execution)

4.     Termination

Following is the
pictorial representation of Project Life cycle:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mavenlink, 2

These four processes will
combine together to make a project successful. The explanation of these phases
are given below.

 

Initiation Phase:

It
is the first phase of project life cycle. It is basically the starting point of
any project. It usually begin by defining the scope, purpose, objectives, deliverables
and the basic structure and flow of the Project. It describe tat how the
project will move. What will be developed first and what will be developed at
the end. In initiation first of all project objective and need is identified.
We define why we need to develop this project and what will be the outcomes of
the project after we have developed it. A requirement document is usually made
in the initiation phase in which all the requirements are identified. After the
identification of the requirements a feasibility study is done for the project
which describes that whether the specific requirements are possible in the
given constraints or not. All the project discrepancies are addressed and
solved in feasibility study.

Once
all the discrepancies are removed then project deliverables and groups are
identified and project manager is appointed for the project. After the
appointment of the manager we move to the second phase which is planning phase.

 

Development (Planning) phase:

Following
are the things done in this phase of cycle:

·       
Project Plan
creation

·       
Scope Management

·       
Risk Management

·       
Stakeholder
Identification

·       
Budget estimation

·       
Scheduling

·       
Documentation

 

In
this phase first of all a plan of the project is made in which it is described
that what are the requirements of the projects and further solution of the
project is started. In which way the project will go what technique will be
applied all of this is done in this phase. The project task and requirements
are identified this is scope management. It is the most important part of the
project life cycle. In the scope all of the basic needs that this project will
do is explained wisely. If it is not done properly then the project will fail.
For Example: As in Neelum Jhelum project the project scope was not identified
properly. In scope it was only give that the project manager is supposed to
make a dam but there was no scope of how this electricity will be connected to
Islamabad grid station. After the completion of the dam the project manager has
attained all the requirements and the scope of the project was completed but it
was of no use for the government so it was a big failure. That’s why the scope
defining is very important. In case of risk management if any of the risk is
remaining it is identified.

After
the scope and risk management all the stakeholders are identified which will
affect the project directly or indirectly. Budget estimation is done after this
process. All cost of the project is made in this case. In estimation of cost
usually there are two approaches top to bottom and bottom to top technique.
This will make the manager to estimate the cost of the project. Scheduling and
deliverables are arranged in this phase too. The most important thing every
manager need is documentation. Documentation is started in this process and
everything that we do during the project is documented and presented by the
manager time by time to his head or the client to which the project is to be
delivered. Also it helps us to make any changes if we want to in the project by
looking at the documentation that where we have to make a change. At this point
the project is planned in all the way and all the requirements and planning is
done and it is ready for the execution.

 

Implementation:

In
this phase all the planning that has been done in the last step is put into
motion and the project work is started. The most important thing of this phase
is maintaining control and communicating with the client as needed. The
progress is done step by step and monitoring of each step is done. After
completion of each step the manager ask for doing appropriate adjustments if
required in the project are made. Each of it is recorded also. Most of the time
of managers of each projects are spent in this step because of the reason that
every step is to be monitored so closely and each of the deliverables of the
project is tried to be satisfied. If these are not satisfied then the project
will fail. So the manager spend a lot of time in this phase. During this phase
tasks are performed by the people and the progress is shared to the manager by
meetings. This progress is also shared with the clients. Usually the
information gained through these meetings and discussions are used by the
manager to get the flow control of the project and if there are any variations
are to be made then it is also done in this project. All the stake holders are
also notified f any variances are to be made because stake holders will be
affected also if there has to be variations done in the project. The plan of
the project is also updated and published time to time on regular basis because
of the variations to be made every time. Project status reports are generated
also on regular basis. It tells a client that how much of his project is done
and how much of it is left.

“Status
reports should always emphasize the anticipated end point in terms of cost,
schedule and quality of deliverables”. After the implementation of each deliverable it should
be reviewed. If all the deliverables are produced and implemented once
according to the clients satisfaction and also he has accepted the final
project solution then we move on to final phase which is termination phase.

 

Termination:

In this phase a
final touch is given to the project which include following things:

·       
Releasing of
Final Project to client

·       
Termination of
Project

·       
Termination of
supplier contracts

·       
Documentation
delivery

·       
Project Resources
release

·       
Final Analysis

In
the termination phase all the project is submitted to client and all of its
documentation is provided to him. After doing it so all the contracts with the
suppliers are terminated and the project is also terminated. All the
stakeholders are informed about the termination and resources of the projects
are released too. At the end most of the big companies do is the analysis of
the project in which they find out what were the hurdles in this project and
what were the things that they did wrong and what were the beneficial things
that we have done in this project. Also these observations are very important
for a manager so that he does not do these mistakes again. In this way the life
cycle of the project complete and also a project completes too.

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