Review “Whether it is being sold by one’s family

Review
of literature suggests that there many studies conducted in sex work. The
present preface deals with the empirical approach to the current study.

Soni
Kewalramani & Shreya Srivastava, (2017), conducted a study titled “Self-efficacy
and positive life -orientation in prostitutes”. the objective of the study was
to measure the self-efficacy and positive life orientation in prostitutes and
general population female. it was hypothesized that self-efficacy and positive
life orientation was higher in female sex workers compared to general
population female. The sample of the current study involved 50 female sex workers
and 50 general population females. Variables were measured with the help of
Self-efficacy Scale (G.P. Mathur &Raj Kumari Bhatnagar) and Positive life
orientation Scale (Manju Agrawal & Ajit.K. Dalal). However, with proper
t-test, the hypothesis was rejected and the result showed that self-efficacy
was lower in female sex workers than in general population and the that
positive life orientation was stable in both the population. On contrary,  Kalemi G, Gkioka S, et.al (2017), organizedastudy on
“stigma and self esteem:A case of HIV+ve sex workers “. the
objective of the study was to measure the uncommon stigmatization of sexual
workers through media as a risk of public health as well as criminals due to
their seropositivity. Sample size of the study was 27 who were HIV+ve.Data
were collected through semi-structured interview during which personal and
medical history was taken and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale was also
administered. For qualitative interview, Interpretative PhenomenologicalAnalysis
(IPA) was used. Despite the stigma no change in the self-esteem and stable
self- destructive behaviours are seen. Researcher reports that this might be
due to proper coping strategies developed by the female sex workers.

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In
2015, Melissa Farley who conducted an extensive research on prostitution in the
US in 2015, observes in her “Prostitution: Fact sheet on Human Rights
Violations”, that prostitution involves sexual harassment, battering, verbal
abuse, childhood sexual abuse, and violation of human rights. Farley writes,
“Whether it is being sold by one’s family to a brothel, or whether it is
being sexually abused in one’s family, running away from home, and then being
pimped by one’s boyfriend, or whether one is in college and needs to pay for
next semester’s tuition and one works at a strip club behind glass where men
never actually touch you – all these forms of prostitution hurt the women in
it.”

 Qiao S, et al. (2014) conducted a study on
Psychological Fears among Low-Paid Female Sex Workers in Southwest China and
Their Implications for HIV Prevention. Compared with other women of
reproductive age, female sex workers are taking a disproportionately high
burden of HIV infection due to behavioural, biological and structural risk factors.
These female sex workers are more vulnerable and prone to be infected compared
to other people, since “clients” refuse to use protective devices or methods.
Quantitative research was conducted through survey and included
socio-demographic data and questions related to work, HIV awareness, HIV
susceptibility, psychological fears, consistent use of condoms with clients and
HIV testing and HIV prevention service utilization. Average frequency,
proportion, correlation, chi-square test and one-way ANOVA were done in the
analysis part. Here the study states that low paid sex workers are more prone
to be infected due to their socioeconomic status, life history and working
environment.

Kasthuri.
Pandiyan,. Chandra Shekar,et.al (2014) conducted a study on “A Study of
Psychological Morbidity among Female Sex Workers”. The study was undertaken to
assess the psychiatric morbidity in female commercial sex workers likely  who are likely to be involved in sexual high
risk taking behaviour. Sample included 30 consecutive sex workers who are
attending psychiatric OPD at Victoria Hospital. Information was collected using
a semi structured proforma, MINI, Beck depression scale, Beck suicide intent
scale and OT I. Results in the current study indicates that psychiatric morbidity
and psychosocial behaviour leads to high sex behavaiour. Almost most of the
interviewed sex workers had sexual partners and have clients more than 5-6 a
day. They have not used any protective devices also. All sex workers had
practiced anal sex and most of them had group sex too.

Remedios
T. Navarro (2014) conducted a study on “Self-esteem Influences
Depressive Symptoms among Female Sex Workers”. 
The objective of the study was To determine to which extend do FSW
experinece depressive symptoms and how their demographic, medical file pro and
self-esteem is relate with it. Tools to measure were the Rosenberg Self-Esteem
Scale and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Data
were analysed through frequency, percentage, mean and simple correlational
analysis.  The results show that
Self-esteem is inversely related to the level of depressive symptoms. The lower
the level of self-esteem, the higher is the level of depressive symptoms and
vice versa.

Another
study was conducted by Sayantan Ghosal , Smarajat Jana,et.al (2013), “Sex
workers, stigma, and belief; evidence from a psychological training program
from India”. The current study is a field experiment that was done in Kolkata.
The study examines whether psychological empowerment can weaken self-perception
imposed by social exclusion.  The
intervention held in Kolkata had a good impact in sex workers and that results
found a positive and significant impact of psychological training on
self-reported measures of agency, self-esteem and happiness. The finding
highlighted the need to account for psychological factors and in the design of
anti-poverty programmes.

Dipak
Suryawanshi, Tarun Bhatnagar, et.al (2013), conducted a survey on  ” Diversity among Clients of Female Sex
Workers in India: Comparing Risk Profiles and Intervention Impact by Site of
Solicitation. Implications for the Vulnerability of Less Visible Female Sex
Workers”. The objective of the study was to analyze the risk environments and
vulnerability of both partners. The tool used was Integrated Biological and
Behavioural Assessment survey in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
Results show that commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to
be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still
largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus
on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual
networks.

Dr.
Subadra Panchanadeswaran, et al. (2010) conducted a study on ” a descriptive
profile of abused sex workers in India”. This descriptive study presents the
profiles of abused female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. Of 100 abused
FSWs surveyed using a structured questionnaire, severe forms of violence by
intimate partners were reported by most (98%) respondents. Of the total sample,
76% experienced violence by clients. Sexual coercion experiences of the FSWs
included verbal threats (77%) and physical force (87%) by intimate partners and
forced unwanted sexual acts (73%) by clients. While 39% of the women consumed
alcohol before meeting a client, 26% reported that their drunkenness was a
trigger for violence by clients. The findings suggest that there is an urgent
need to integrate services, along with public-health interventions among FSWs
to protect them from violence. Recognition of multiple identities of women in
the contexts of intimate relationships versus sex work is vital in helping
women to stay safe from adverse effects on health.

Rössler
W1, et al. (2010), Department of General and Social Psychiatry, Psychiatric
University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland, conducted a study about “the mental
health of female sex workers” which reveals as the a quota-sampling strategy
was the best possible alternative. Sex workers were contacted at different
locations in the city of Zurich. They were interviewed with a computerized
version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic
Interview. Additional information was assessed in a structured face-to-face
interview. It was found that 193 interviewed female sex workers displayed high
rates of mental disorders. These mental disorders were related to violence and
the subjectively perceived burden of sex work.

Rakhi
Dandona, Lalit Dandona, et.al (2006), conducted a study on “Demography and sex
work characteristics of female sex workers in India”. Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was
done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian
state of Andhra Pradesh. The demography of FSWs was compared with that of women
in the general population. A total of 5010 (75.4%), 1499 (22.5%), and 139
(2.1%) street-, home-, and brothel-based FSWs, respectively, participated.
Comparison with women of Andhra Pradesh revealed that the proportion of those
aged 20–34 years (75.6%), belonging to scheduled caste (35.3%) and scheduled
tribe (10.5%), illiterate (74.7%), and of those separated/divorced (30.7%) was
higher among FSWs (p 5 years
were more likely to be non-street-based FSWs, illiterate, living in small urban
towns, and to have started sex work between 12–15 years of age. The mean age at
starting sex work (21.7 years) and gap between the first vaginal intercourse
and the first sexual intercourse in exchange for money (6.6 years) was lower
for FSWs in the rural areas as compared with those in large urban areas (23.9
years and 8.8 years, respectively). These data highlight that women struggling
with illiteracy, lower social status, and less economic opportunities are
especially vulnerable to being infected by HIV, as sex work may be one of the
few options available to them to earn money. Recommendations for actions are
made for long-term impact on reducing the numbers of women being infected by
HIV in addition to the current HIV prevention efforts in India.

Marita
P. McCab, & George Taleporos (2001), conducted
a study on ” Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual attitude Among
People With Physical Disability”.  The
objective of the study was to measure association between the severity and
duration of physical disability and sexual esteem, sexual depression, sexual
satisfaction, and the frequency of sexual behavior. The sample of the study was
1,196 participants completed the study. 
748 participants (367 males, 381 females) who had a physical disability
and 448 participants (171 males, 277 females) who were able-bodied. Data were
collected from Multidimensional Sexual Self-Concept Questionnaire, Snell &
Papini, (1989), Sexual Frequency Scale, 
Sexual satisfaction was measured using a single item that asked,
“Looking back over the past 6 months, how sexually satis?ed do you feel
overall?”( 1 (extremely dissatis?ed) to 5 (extremely satis?ed).),  Physical Disability Sexual and Body
Esteem(PDSBE). The samples were analysed with the help of chi-square test.
Results demonstrate that people with more severe physical impairments experienced
signi?cantly lower levels of sexual esteem and sexual satisfaction and
signi?cantly higher levels of sexual depression than people who had mild
impairments or who did not report having a physical impairment.

 

Schissel
et al.(1999) explored the “culture of violence” experienced by young prostitutes
by analyzing youth probation files in Regina and Saskatoon. In addition to
uncovering high levels of childhood physical and sexual abuse among youth
prostitutes, the authors find several examples of indirect and direct
victimization. As the authors note: “”prostitution creates a context in
which those youth who are involved will run a high risk of being damaged by a
predator or by themselves – whether directly through assault and self-injury or
indirectly through high-risk behaviour””

Minichiello,
et al. (1999) examined customers of male prostitutes by asking male sex workers
their perceptions of the characteristics of clients. One hundred and eighty-six
sex workers participated in the study, providing information on 2,088
encounters and profiles for 1,776 clients. Most clients were perceived as being
“middle class.” “Rich” clients tended to use services provided by an escort
agency, while “poor” clients used the services of street workers. Most clients
were identified as being gay (45%) or bisexual (31.3%). Drug and alcohol use by
clients before the sexual encounter was uncommon. Customer violence was
reported infrequently (occurring more frequently with street clients than with
other types of clients.

Dorais
(1996) suggested that some male victims of childhood sexual abuse might become
involved in “aggressive prostitution” as a means of diverting revenge against
the true aggressor.

While
focusing on the psychological development of young prostitutes and the
psychological impact of being involved in the sex trade, Coleman (1989) found
that disruptions in the psychosexual and psychological development of young
males may contribute to their participation in “”destructive and non-ego
enhancing prostitution activities.”

Many
youth who run away from home (as noted above, often from physically and
sexually abusive home environments) may be drawn to the streets by a sense of
excitement and a desire for money and independence (Michaud, 1988). However,
once on the streets, the research indicates that some of these youth may turn
to prostitution as a means of subsistence. He noted that problems associated
with homelessness (such as youth unemployment) provide the impetus for some
youth to enter prostitution as a source of income.

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